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Plasma-treated nano filters help purify world water supply by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Access to safe drinking water is a step closer to being a reality for those in developing countries, thanks to new nanoscience research.
Researchers examine dynamics of liquid metal particles at nanoscale by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Researchers have demonstrated that using a continuum-based approach, they can explain the dynamics of liquid metal particles on a substrate of a nanoscale.
One-of-a-kind spectrometer reads vibrations between atoms to find structures of molecules by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
A Rice University laboratory has improved upon its ability to determine molecular structures in three dimensions in ways that challenge long-used standards.
Biopolymer templated glass with a twist by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Researchers fabricated nanoporous glass films using nanocrystals of cellulose, the main component of pulp and paper. The unique, helical structure of cellulose is replicated in a mineral. This helical organization synthetically mimics the structure of the exoskeletons of some iridescent beetles. Introducing porosity into photonic crystals provides a means to tune their optical properties by infiltrating the pores with various guests: When certain liquids are added to the film, the liquid gets trapped in the pores and changes the optical properties of the films.
Graphene nanoscrolls are formed by decoration of magnetic nanoparticles by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Researchers show in a new study how nitrogen doped graphene can be rolled into perfect Archimedean nano scrolls by adhering magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on the surface of the graphene sheets. The new material may have very good properties for application as electrodes in for example Li-ion batteries.
Pharmacy academic takes nanomedicine research global by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
University of Sydney Faculty of Pharmacy researcher, Dr Wojciech Chrzanowski, has gained international attention for his groundbreaking work on biomaterial technologies, an area that seeks to enhance the integration between human cells and surgical implants.
Science is harnessing shock waves to create new materials by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Researchers at Purdue University are part of a national effort to develop new materials having super strength and other properties by using shock waves similar to those generated by meteorites striking the Earth.
New Nanopositioning Piezo Stage from nPoint by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
The NPXY50-286 nanopositioner is the latest addition to nPoint's piezo stage lineup. This new stage is designed for high specification research and OEM markets where its small size, fast speed, and high resolution are ideal.
Growth of disorder of electrons measured in dual temperature system by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Researchers at Aalto University and the University of Tokyo have succeeded for the first time in experimentally measuring a probability distribution for entropy production of electrons.
Micron 16-Nanometer NAND Technology Wins Flash Memory Summit Best of Show Award by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Micron Technology's 16-nanometer NAND process technology, enabling the industry's smallest 128-gigabit multilevel cell NAND Flash memory devices, has been chosen by Flash Memory Summit as the 2013 Best of Show award winner in the category of Most Innovative Flash Memory Technology.
New NSF grant to realize chip-scale bio-inspired spiking neural networks with nanoscale memristors by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
A Boise State research team has taken on the challenge of developing a new kind of computing architecture that works more like a brain than a digital computer.
POET Technologies Moves to Next Phase of Commercialization Plan by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
POET Technologies Inc., developer of the proprietary planar-optoelectronic technology ('POET') platform for monolithic fabrication of integrated electronic and optical devices on a single semiconductor wafer, announced today that its Board of Directors have endorsed the next phases of the Company's commercialization plan.
Nanowires increase efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cells by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Researchers report effects of zinc oxide nanowire electrodes grown from different seed layers on performance of dye-sensitized solar cells.
Inspired by nature: textured materials to aid industry and military by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Innovation Corps team developed metals and plastic that repel water, capture sunlight and prevent ice build-up.
A National Science Foundation grant for training future nanoengineers by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Researchers at Wayne State University are developing an undergraduate certificate program geared toward training the next generation of nanoengineers.
An organized approach to 3D tissue engineering by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Researchers at the Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology (IBN) have developed a simple method of organizing cells and their microenvironments in hydrogel fibers. Their unique technology provides a feasible template for assembling complex structures, such as liver and fat tissues.
Veeco Introduces GENxplor Molecular Beam Epitaxy System by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Veeco Instruments Inc. today introduced the GENxplor Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE) Deposition System, the industry's first fully-integrated MBE system for the compound semiconductor R+D market. The GENxplor creates high quality epitaxial layers on substrates up to 3" in diameter and is ideal for cutting edge research on a wide variety of materials including GaAs, nitrides, and oxides.
Graphene Reinforced Alumina Tougher and More Conductive Than Plain Alumina by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Graphene can reinforce ceramics, simultaneously making them conductive - at least that's what Graphenea's most recent scientific work demonstrates.
Air quality measurements: New manufacturing method for gas nanosensors by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Targeted measurement of specific air components comes one step closer.
Vault particles as a nanotechnology platform by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Vault particles are large, barrel-shaped nanoparticles found in the cytoplasm of all mammalian cells. All human cells so far analyzed have been shown to contain vaults with quantities varying from a few thousand per cell to in excess of 100 000 per cell. As naturally occurring nanoscale capsules, vaults may be useful to engineer as therapeutic delivery vehicles. The particles can be produced in large quantities and are assembled in situ from multiple copies of the single structural protein following expression. Using molecular engineering, recombinant vaults can be functionally modified and targeted, and their contents can be controlled by packaging.
NEI Corporation Introduces An Easy-to-Clean, Scratch Resistant Coating by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
NEI Corporation announced today that it has introduced a transparent, micron-thick coating that provides both scratch resistance and easy to clean properties to surfaces. The waterborne SR100EC coating can be applied to plastics such as polycarbonate, PMMA, PET, polyurethane, epoxy, as well as metals such as stainless steel, aluminum, titanium, brass and chrome.
Nanotechnology approach replaces platinum in solar cells with 3D graphene by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Platinum is a key material in dye-sensitized solar cells, where it is used to make counter electrodes. A new, 3D form of graphene made from carbon monoxide and lithium oxide was used to replace the platinum with virtually no loss in electrical generating capacity.
Combining hologram with nanoscale features creates strange state of light by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
A new three-in-one optical element can control light's amplitude, phase, and polarization through a wedding of old-fashioned holograms and state-of-the-art nanoscale features. An unusual state of light, a radially polarized beam, which is important for microscopy and particle manipulation, has been created by sending conventional laser light through this holographic plate.
Building better brain implants: The challenge of longevity by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
New techniques open the doors for solving a great challenge for bioengineers ? crafting a device that can withstand the physiological conditions in the brain for the long-term.
HyperSolar Moves Closer to Low Cost Solar Hydrogen Water-Splitting by Reaching the 1.0 Volt Milestone by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Company also extends sponsored research agreement with University of California Santa Barbara after achieving dramatic breakthroughs in its novel low cost solar cell component.
Inkjet printing of graphene for flexible electronics by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Graphene has a unique combination of properties that is ideal for next-generation electronics, including mechanical flexibility, high electrical conductivity, and chemical stability. Combine this with inkjet printing, already extensively demonstrated with conductive metal nanoparticle ink, and you get an inexpensive and scalable path for exploiting these properties in real-world technologies. Although liquid-phase graphene dispersions have been demonstrated, researchers are still struggling with sophisticated inkjet printing technologies that allow efficient and reliable mass production of high-quality graphene patterns for practical applications. Recent work has addressed these issues and proposes an approach to overcome these problems.
Technique to improve high precision and nanotechnology surface measurement by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
A University of Warwick scientist has conceived a new method to improve the measurement of the surfaces of components essential for use in high-precision and nanotechnology applications.
Agar Launches Graphene Oxide Support Films Developed in Collaboration With the University of Warwick by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Agar Scientific, a leading supplier of microscopy accessories and consumables, has launched a new range of graphene oxide support films which have been developed in collaboration with Dr Neil Wilson, Microscopy Group, Physics Department at the University of Warwick.
Lab-made nanoscale complexes are 'sun sponges' by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
A ring of protein and pigments, half synthetic and half natural, can be used to quickly prototype light-harvesting antennas that absorb more sunlight than fully natural ones.
Physicists pinpoint key property of material that both conducts and insulates by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Scientists now have made the first-ever accurate determination of a solid-state triple point in a substance called vanadium dioxide, which is known for switching rapidly - in as little as one 10-trillionth of a second - from an electrical insulator to a conductor, and thus could be useful in various technologies.
Better insight into molecular interactions by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
How molecules in biochemical solutions do interact, is a question of great importance for understanding processes in catalysts, functional materials and even in organisms. Until now, scientists could have a look at these interactions by spectroscopy, but it was hard to distinguish the different interactions, which take place simultaneously. A groundbreaking work by HZB-scientist Emad Flear Aziz and theoretical physicist Oliver Kühn from University Rostock could now change the game.
New tunnel FET architecture shows potential for substantial performance improvements by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
The new three-dimensional structure produces a stronger electric field at the given gate voltage and results in an operating current flow 10 to 100 times greater than that of conventional tunnel FETs.
Insect inspired super rubber moves toward practical uses in medicine by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
The remarkable, rubber-like protein that enables dragonflies, grasshoppers and other insects to flap their wings, jump and chirp has major potential uses in medicine.
Nanotechnology safety: New tests for determining health and environmental effects by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
A group of international experts from government, industry and academia have concluded that alternative testing strategies (ATSs) that don't rely on animals will be needed to cope with the wave of new nanomaterials emerging from the boom in nanoscience and nanotechnology.
Sticking power of plant polyphenols used in new nanocoatings by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Compounds found in red wine and green tea stick to anything, retain useful properties.
First laser-like X-ray light from a solid by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Researchers have for the first time created an X-ray laser based on a solid. The method developed at DESY's free-electron laser FLASH opens up new avenues of investigation in materials research.
A new process for producing carbon nanomembranes by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
The advantage of the new method of fabrication is that it allows a variety of different carbon nanomembranes to be generated which are much thinner than conventional membranes.
Two become one with the 3D NanoChemiscope unique surface analysis instrument by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
The 3D NanoChemiscope is a miracle of state-of-the-art analysis technology. As a further development of well-known microscopic and mass spectroscopic methods, it maps the physical and chemical surfaces of materials down to the atomic level. This instrument, which is unique in the world, not only delivers high-definition images; it also knows what it is 'seeing'.
Applied Chemical Laboratories Offers Chemical Purification Services to Remove Trace Ionic Contamination from Photovoltaic, Electronic and Nanotechnology Chemicals by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
pplied Chemical Laboratories, Inc., an innovator in high purity, eco-friendly electronic chemicals and specialized coatings now offers a custom service for removing contaminants from ultra-pure polymeric and organic chemicals and compounds. The service is tailored for lab scale development projects in the computer chip, photovoltaic, and pharmaceutical industries.
Nanotechnology research produces foldable graphene electronics on paper by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
In contrast to flexible electronics, which rely on bendable substrates, truly foldable electronics require a foldable substrate with a very stable conductor that can withstand folding, i.e. an edge in the substrate at the point of the fold, which develops creases, and the deformation remains even after unfolding. That means that, in addition to a foldable substrate like paper, the conductor that is deposited on this substrate also needs to be foldable. Researchers have now demonstrated a fabrication process for foldable graphene circuits based on paper substrates.
Carbon under pressure exhibits interesting traits by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
(Arizona State University) High pressures and temperatures cause materials to exhibit unusual properties, some of which can be special. Understanding such new properties is important for developing new materials for desired industrial uses and also for understanding the interior of Earth, where everything is hot and squeezed.
JCI early table of contents for Aug. 8, 2013 by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
(Journal of Clinical Investigation) This release contains summaries, links to PDFs, and contact information for the following newsworthy papers to be published online, Aug. 8, 2013, in the JCI: Engineered rice protects against rotavirus infection;Tumor microenvironment allows cancer cells to hide from the immune system;Retinoids activate the irritant receptor TRPV1 and produce sensory hypersensitivity;Age-dependent hepatic lymphoid organization directs successful immunity to hepatitis B;Increased Fanconi C expression contributes to the emergency granulopoiesis response;Nanoparticle-based flow virometry for the analysis of individual virions
Molecules form 2-D patterns never before observed by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
(Technische Universitaet Muenchen) Tessellation patterns that have fascinated mathematicians since Kepler worked out their systematics 400 years ago -- and that more recently have caught the eye of artists and crystallographers -- can now be seen in the laboratory. They first took shape on a surface more perfectly two-dimensional than any sheet of paper, a single layer of atoms and molecules atop an atomically smooth substrate. Physicists coaxed these so-called Kepler tilings "onto the page" through guided self-assembly of nanostructures.
Pass the salt: Common condiment could enable new high-tech industry by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
(Oregon State University) Chemists have identified a compound that could significantly reduce the cost and potentially enable the mass commercial production of silicon nanostructures -- materials that have huge potential in everything from electronics to biomedicine and energy storage. This extraordinary compound is called table salt.
A path to better MTV-MOFs by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
(DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) A team of Berkeley Lab and UC Berkeley researchers have developed a method for accurately predicting the ability of MTV-MOFs (multivariate metal organic frameworks) to scrub carbon dioxide from the exhaust gases of fossil fuel power plants.
New book by Wayne State professor explores health at the nano scale by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
(Wayne State University - Office of the Vice President for Research) A Wayne State University School of Medicine professor has published a book that covers new advances in nano cell biology, nano medicine and imaging modalities.
Chemists design 'smart' nanoparticles to improve drug delivery, DNA self-assembly by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
(Syracuse University) A team of chemists in SU's College of Arts and Scientists has used a temperature-sensitive polymer to regulate DNA interactions in both a DNA-mediated assembly system and a DNA-encoded drug-delivery system. Their findings, led by associate professor Mathew M. Maye and graduate students Kristen Hamner and Colleen Alexander, may improve how nanomaterials self-assemble into functional devices and how anticancer drugs, including doxorubicin, are delivered into the body.
Chemists develop 'fresh, new' approach to making alloy nanomaterials by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
(Syracuse University) Chemists at Syracuse University have figured out how to synthesize nanomaterials with stainless steel-like interfaces. Their discovery may change how the form and structure of nanomaterials are manipulated, particularly those used for gas storage, heterogeneous catalysis and lithium-ion batteries.
Nanodrug targeting breast cancer cells from the inside adds weapon: Immune system attack by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
(Cedars-Sinai Medical Center) A unique nanoscale drug that can carry a variety of weapons and sneak into cancer cells to break them down from the inside has a new component: a protein that stimulates the immune system to attack HER2-positive breast cancer cells.
Device for capturing signatures uses tiny LEDs created with piezo-phototronic effect by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
(Georgia Institute of Technology) Georgia Tech researchers want to put your signature up in lights. Using thousands of nanometer-scale wires, the researchers have developed a sensor device that converts mechanical pressure -- from a signature or a fingerprint -- directly into light signals that can be captured and processed optically.
Computer simulations reveal universal increase in electrical conductivity by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
(University College London) Computer simulations have revealed how the electrical conductivity of many materials increases with a strong electrical field in a universal way. This development could have significant implications for practical systems in electrochemistry, biochemistry, electrical engineering and beyond.
New twist in the graphene story by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
(DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) Berkeley Lab researchers, working at the Advanced Light Source, have discovered that in the making of bilayer graphene, a tiny structural twist arises that can lead to surprisingly strong changes in the material's electronic properties.
High-angle helix helps bacteria swim by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
(Brown University) It's counterintuitive but true: Some microorganisms that use flagella for locomotion are able to swim faster in gel-like fluids such as mucus. Research engineers at Brown University have figured out why. It's the angle of the coil that matters. Findings are reported in Physical Review Letters.
Scientists find asymmetry in topological insulators by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
(DOE/National Renewable Energy Laboratory) New research shows that a class of materials being eyed for the next generation of computers behaves asymmetrically at the sub-atomic level. This research is a key step toward understanding the topological insulators that may have the potential to be the building blocks of a super-fast quantum computer that could run on almost no electricity.
Advancing resistive memory to improve portable electronics by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
(University of California - Riverside) A team at the University of California, Riverside Bourns College of Engineering has developed a novel way to build what many see as the next generation memory storage devices for portable electronic devices including smart phones, tablets, laptops and digital cameras.
Memory breakthrough could bring faster computing, smaller memory devices and lower power consumption by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
(The Hebrew University of Jerusalem) Researchers in Israel have developed a simple magnetization progress that could lead to a new generation of faster, smaller and less expensive memory technologies. "Magnetless spin memory" eliminates the need for permanent magnets in memory devices, opening the door to many technological applications.
UGA researchers use nanoparticles to fight cancer by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
(University of Georgia) Researchers at the University of Georgia are developing a new treatment technique that uses nanoparticles to reprogram immune cells so they are able to recognize and attack cancer. The findings were published recently in the early online edition of ACS Nano.
Graphene nanoscrolls are formed by decoration of magnetic nanoparticles by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
(Umea University) Researchers at Umeå University in Sweden, together with researchers at Uppsala University and Stockholm University, show in a new study how nitrogen doped graphene can be rolled into perfect Archimedean nano scrolls by adhering magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on the surface of the graphene sheets. The new material may have very good properties for application as electrodes in for example Li-ion batteries.
First time: NJIT researchers examine dynamics of liquid metal particles at nanoscale by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
(New Jersey Institute of Technology) Two NJIT researchers have demonstrated that using a continuum-based approach, they can explain the dynamics of liquid metal particles on a substrate of a nanoscale. "Numerical simulation of ejected molten metal nanoparticles liquified by laser irradiation: Interplay of geometry and dewetting," appeared in Physical Review Letters (July 16, 2013).
Wayne State receives National Science Foundation grant for training future nanoengineers by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
(Wayne State University - Office of the Vice President for Research) Researchers at Wayne State University received a $200,000 grant from the National Science Foundation to develop an undergraduate certificate program to train the next generation of nanoengineers.
An organized approach to 3-D tissue engineering by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
(Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR), Singapore) Researchers at the Institute of Bioengineering and Nanotechnology have developed a simple method of organizing cells and their microenvironments in hydrogel fibers. Their unique technology provides a feasible template for assembling complex structures, such as liver and fat tissues, as described in their recent publication in Nature Communications.
'Groovy' hologram creates strange state of light by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
(Harvard University) A new three-in-one optical element can control light's amplitude, phase, and polarization through a wedding of old-fashioned holograms and state-of-the-art nanoscale features. An unusual state of light, a radially polarized beam, which is important for microscopy and particle manipulation, has been created by sending conventional laser light through this holographic plate.
3D graphene: Solar cells' new platinum? by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
(Michigan Technological University) Platinum is a key material in dye-sensitized solar cells, where it is used to make counter electrodes. A new, 3D form of graphene made from carbon monoxide and lithium oxide was used to replace the platinum with virtually no loss in electrical generating capacity.
New tests for determining health and environmental effects of nanomaterials by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
(American Chemical Society) A group of international experts from government, industry and academia have concluded that alternative testing strategies that don't rely on animals will be needed to cope with the wave of new nanomaterials emerging from the boom in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Their consensus statement from a workshop on the topic appears in the journal ACS Nano.
Process devised for ultrathin carbon membranes by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
(University of Bielefeld) A research team working with Professor Dr. Armin Gölzhäuser of Bielefeld University has succeeded in developing a new path to produce carbon nanomembranes. In the future, such nanomembranes are expected to be able to filter out very fine materials.The advantage of the new method of fabrication is that it allows a variety of different carbon nanomembranes to be generated which are much thinner than conventional membranes.
NanoManufacturing 2013: Applications and Opportunities by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Conference: 25 Sep 2013, Greensboro, NC, United States. Organized by Joint School of Nanoscience and Nanoengineering (JSNN).<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/mkmiBebjhGs" height="1" width="1" />
META'14, the 5th International Conference on Metamaterials, Photonic Crystals and Plasmonics by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Conference: 20 May 2014 - 23 May 2014, Singapore. Organized by Said Zouhdi.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/aENnHDH4EpA" height="1" width="1" />
The Physics of Soft and Biological Matter by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Conference: 14 Apr 2014 - 16 Apr 2014, Homerton College, Hills Road, Cambridge, Cb2 8PH, United Kingdom.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/ZO6SKh4xiD8" height="1" width="1" />
Advances in Photovoltaics Conference - Sept 24; London by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:31
The Advances in Photovoltaics conference will be held on September 24 in London, UK. This one day meeting provides a forum to help assess the current state of the art in solar cells. It brings together a list of distinguished invited speakers whose expertise covers the range of photovoltaic technologies. An exhibition will be held alongside this meeting, organizers said.
Silicon Quantum Information Processing Meeting (SiQIP) 2013 by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Conference: 20 Sep 2013, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey, GU2 7XH, United Kingdom. Organized by IOP BRSG: THe Magnetic Resonance Group.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/n-oIEw2v9YY" height="1" width="1" />
Physical Acoustics Group Tutorial Day: Ultrasound in Action by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Conference: 19 Sep 2013, Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London, W1B 1NT, United Kingdom. Organized by IOP Physical Acoustics Group.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/9W6XGQZSEyg" height="1" width="1" />
13th UK Annual LOT & J A Woollam Ellipsometry Seminar by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Workshop: 9 Oct 2013, Weybridge, Surrey, United Kingdom. Organized by LOT-QuantumDesign Ltd.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/Xoeo30jsGWw" height="1" width="1" />
Wafer Fab Processing Course (San Jose) by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Course: 7 Nov 2013, San Jose, CA, United States. Organized by Semitracks, Inc..<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/nRlexevY6xA" height="1" width="1" />
Advanced Thermal Management & Packaging Materials by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Course: 19 Nov 2013 - 20 Nov 2013, Philadelphia, PA, United States. Organized by Semitracks, Inc..<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/jWBRX9_W7yY" height="1" width="1" />
4th International Colloids Conference by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Conference: 15 Jun 2014 - 18 Jun 2014, Madrid, Spain. Organized by Elsevier.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/YA-Bbxyp2DQ" height="1" width="1" />
New Tool Provides Fingerprint of Atomic Scale Interactions by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
How exactly atoms and molecules in biochemical solutions or at solid-liquid interfaces do interact, is a question of great importance. Answers will provide insights at processes in catalysts, smart...
Scientists Determine Solid-State Triple Point in Vanadium Dioxide Nanowires by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:27
Scientists at the University of Washington have made the first-ever accurate determination of a solid-state “triple point” in a substance called vanadium dioxide. The material is known for switching rapidly – in as little as one 10-trillionth of a second – from an electrical insulator to a conductor, and thus could be useful in various technologies. <p><p> In the context of water, a triple point is where its three phases – ice, liquid and vapor – can exist stably together, which happens only at a particular temperature and pressure. <p><p> “These solid-state triple points are fiendishly difficult to study, essentially because the different shapes of the solid phases makes it hard for them to match up happily at their interfaces,” said David Cobden, a University of Washington physics professor. <p><p>
TI Introduces Nano-Power System Timers by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Texas Instruments (TI) today introduced two programmable system timers that significantly reduce system standby power consumption. The TPL5000 with watchdog timer and TPL5100 with MOS driver draw...
Nanometer Level Measurements in Electronic Manufacturing Boost Demand for Dimensional Metrology by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Advancements in nanotechnologies have increased the global demand for high-precision dimensional metrology equipment in electronic manufacturing. Regulations that place emphasis on product quality...
PV Nano Cell, LEED and PVN-LEED JV Receive Infinity Group Investment by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Infinity Group, a cross-border, private equity platform, announced today that the Infinity IP Bank, together with the Infinity Suzhou Fund, has completed a transaction which includes a three-part...
Novel Bio-Imaging System Can Be Used to Study Single-Cell Organisms by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Summary: Scientists using a pioneering bio-imaging system to record simultaneously the development of hundreds of aquatic embryos have discovered significant parent-offspring similarities in the...
Controlling Nanostructure and Morphology May Aid Development of Inexpensive Organic Solar Cells by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
Work by a team of chemical engineers at Penn State and Rice University may lead to a new class of inexpensive organic solar cells. &quot;Imagine if you could make solar cells as easily as you...
University of Manchester Appoints Business Development and Strategy Director for Graphene by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
The University has appointed a Business Development and Strategy Director for graphene to attract some of the world&rsquo;s biggest companies to partner with the National Graphene Institute....
Global Demand for Automotive MEMS Sensors Projected to Reach $4.7 Billion by 2020 by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:22
Reportlinker.com announces that a new market research report is available in its catalogue: Global Automotive Sensors Market with Special Focus on MEMS Sensors. <p><p> As the electronics content is increasing in automobiles, the number of automotive sensors used in vehicles is also increasing. Primarily, the government regulations in North America, Europe, Japan, China and South Korea, driving demand for automobile safety features that ranges from passive to integrated active and passive safety systems. These developments are driving increased demand for applications such as tire pressure monitoring, electronic stability control, occupant detection and advanced driver assistant systems, the report said. <p><p>
UCSD Nanoengineering Professor Named Among MIT Technology Review’s Top 35 Young Innovators by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:06
MIT Technology Review has named Liangfang Zhang, a professor of nanoengineering at the University of California, San Diego, among the top 35 young innovators of 2013. For over a decade, the global...
Living power cables discovered by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Multicellular bacteria transmit electrons across relatively enormous distances.
A new take on the Midas touch - nanoembossing can change the color of gold by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
A University of Southampton team have discovered that by embossing tiny raised or indented patterns onto gold's surface they can change the way it absorbs and reflects light - ensuring our eyes don't see it as golden in color at all.
Nanoscale imaging the cross section of a drop sitting on a surface by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Nanostructured surfaces with special wetting properties can not only efficiently repel or attract liquids like water and oils but can also prevent formation of biofilms, ice, and other detrimental crystals. Such super- and ultrahydrophobic surfaces also hold the promise of significantly improving performance of condensers, which could boost the efficiency of most power plants in the world. A critical part of designing such surfaces is 'seeing' how water and other liquids interact when in contact with them. Since these surfaces are made of nanostructures, scientists need to use an electron microscope to image these interactions. In new work, researchers have developed a method for directly imaging such interfacial regions with previously unattainable nanoscale resolution.
Louisiana Tech to host 'Nanotechnology for Louisiana' conference by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Louisiana Tech University's College of Engineering and Science will host industry leaders from throughout the region as well as faculty experts from Louisiana Tech at the 'Nanotechnology for Louisiana' conference, November 9 at the Louisiana Tech Shreveport Center in Shreveport.
Basque Nanotechnology to Inoculate Insulin by Means of an Adhesive Bandage on the Cheek by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Midatech is designing, developing, synthesizing and manufacturing nanomedicines based on its proprietary, self assembling biocompatible nanoparticle technology.
Obstinate electrons 'ignore' assumptions and follow another path by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
One-dimensional behaviour produces surprising effect.
New self-assembled nanoparticles may soon make biopsies obsolete by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Glucose-amine rings turn star-shaped fluorescent dyes into powerful probes for imaging cancer cells in three dimensions.
Data storage: Going with the grain by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Reducing information stored in magnetic thin films to the physical size of single grains could improve computer hard drives.
Nanomaterials: Bringing crystals into line by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
The temperature-controlled alignment of tiny crystals could help harness their collective properties for nanotechnology applications.
High-pressure science gets super-sized with nanodiamond anvils by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
The study of materials at extreme conditions took a giant leap forward with the discovery of a way to generate super high pressures without using shock waves whose accompanying heat turns solids to liquid.
A 'nanoscale landscape' controls flow of surface electrons on a topological insulator by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Stripe-like contours on a surface modulate electrons that behave like light.
Researchers develop new nanoparticle drug delivery system for bladder cancer by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
A team of UC Davis scientists has shown in experimental mouse models that a new drug delivery system allows for administration of three times the maximum tolerated dose of a standard drug therapy for advanced bladder cancer, leading to more effective cancer control without increasing toxicity.
Electron 'sniper' targets graphene by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
A team led by Oxford University scientists report a new approach to engineering graphene's atomic structure with unprecedented precision.
Nano3d Biosciences Signs Distribution Agreement with MIDSCI to Distribute its 3D Cell Culture Technology to U.S. Researchers by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Nano3D Biosciences announced today that it has signed a distribution agreement with MIDSCI, a scientific products distribution company based in St. Louis, MO to sell its BioAssembler product line. The BioAssembler is a revolutionary 3D cell culture technology that utilizes magnetic nanoparticles to create a scaffold-less 3D cell culture environment.
Graphene appears to be the most effective material for EMI shielding by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Sensitive electronic devices like cell phones and computers require shielding from electromagnetic interference (EMI). Such shielding - which must be electrically conductive - has traditionally been made of metal, which poses a weight problem in the push to miniaturize and lighten electronics. Previous research has already demonstrated that ultra-lightweight carbon nanostructure-based nanocomposite materials outperform conventional metal shielding due to their light weight, resistance to corrosion, flexibility, and processing advantages. In new work, scientists in Korea have now demonstrated that single-layer graphene is an excellent choice of material for high-performance EMI shielding. They found that CVD-synthesized graphene shows more than seven times greater EMI shielding effectiveness (in terms of dB) than gold film of the same thickness.
NGOs respond to European Commission's second regulatory review of nanomaterials by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
The European Environmental Bureau has joined together with a broad coalition of environmental non-governmental organizations (NGOs), consumer organizations and trade unions to express grave concerns about the conclusions of the second regulatory review of nanomaterials, published by the European Commission on October 3rd.
Scientists develop revolutionary nanotechnology copper solder by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Scientists in the Advanced Materials and Nanosystems directorate at the Lockheed Martin Space Systems Advanced Technology Center (ATC) in Palo Alto have developed a revolutionary nanotechnology copper-based electrical interconnect material, or solder, that can be processed around 200 C.
The art of the small - nanotechnology art contest by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Sponsored by the Nanodermatology Society, this art contest is designed to highlight original work of an artistic nature related to nanotechnology and especially nanotechnology in dermatology. Subject matter can include experimental apparatus, models, simulations, nanomaterials rendered in computer graphics, drawings, 3D art, or video.
Researchers develop green, cost-effective method for silver nanoparticle production by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Scientists succeeded in the production of silver nanoparticles through a new green method, a combination of modified and microbial polysaccharide methods.
Vorbeck Materials Expands Vor-ink Capacity; Launches Online Store by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Vorbeck Materials, an established leader in graphene production and engineering, announces a new online store, the completion of its latest capacity expansion, and new specialized Vor-ink products.
Research on nanocrystals to move from lab to market by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
UC Riverside and The Idea Zoo, Inc., sign license agreement to commercialize research performed in Yadong Yin's lab
Strengthening fragile forests of carbon nanotubes for new MEMS applications by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
By using a variety of materials not commonly associated with MEMS technology, a team from Brigham Young University has created stronger microstructures that can form precise, tall and narrow 3-D shapes - characteristics that were never before possible in MEMS.
Next-generation antireflection coatings could improve solar photovoltaic cell efficiency by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Photovoltaic cell efficiency may soon get a big boost, thanks to next-generation antireflection coatings crafted from nanomaterials capable of cutting down on the amount of light reflected away from a cell's surface.
Scientists build 'nanobowls' to protect catalysts needed for better biofuel production by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Scientists are using a layering technique developed for microchip manufacturing to build nanoscale 'bowls' that protect miniature metal catalysts from the harsh conditions of biofuel refining. Furthermore, the size, shape, and composition of the nanobowls can easily be tailored to enhance their functionality and specificity.
Scientists use molecular layers to study nanoscale heat transfer by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
A research team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) has developed a novel system for examining and measuring nanoscale thermal conductance at the interface between two materials.
Near-atomically flat silicon could help pave the way to new chemical sensors by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Scientists have succeeded in creating near-atomically flat silicon, of the orientation used by the electronics industry, in a room temperature reaction. The flat silicon might one day serve as the base for new biological and chemical sensors.
Nanotechnology helps scientists keep silver shiny by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
A team of researchers led by Ray Phaneuf, a professor of materials science and engineering at the University of Maryland, College Park, has partnered with The Walters Art Museum in Baltimore to investigate less labor-intensive ways to protect silver artifacts from tarnishing.
Scientists demonstrate high-efficiency quantum dot solar cells by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Scientists from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have demonstrated the first solar cell with external quantum efficiency (EQE) exceeding 100 percent for photons with energies in the solar range.
Measuring molecules with the naked eye by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Chemists' innovation may be a better model for disease diagnostic kits.
A nanoscale circuit diagram of the mouse brain by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Max Planck scientists aim to analyse a whole mouse brain under the electron microscope.
Attolight and Leti Launch Joint-Development Program to Extend Applications for Cathodoluminescence Technology by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Attolight and CEA-Leti today announced that they have entered into a joint-development program to apply Attolight's cathodoluminescence microscopy to semiconductor materials.
New Lithium Si-Graphene Battery Material Opens Doors by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
CalBattery anode material triples capacity while lowering battery cost up to 70%.
Focusing light on the nanoscale: Making nanolenses from metallic particles and DNA by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Researchers have overcome this problem by an elegant self-assembly technique that produces millions of nanolenses on the basis of metallic nanoparticles in combination with DNA structures. These nanolenses enable 100fold more sensitive detection of even single molecules than previous approaches.
Licht auf der Nanoskala fokussieren: Forscher präsentieren winzige Linsen aus Nanoteilchen und DNA by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Wissenschaftler an der Technischen Universität Braunschweig, hat nun ein Verfahren entwickelt, bei dem Millionen sogenannter Nanolinsen aus metallischen Nanoteilchen und DNA parallel hergestellt werden. Diese Nanolinsen erlauben es, sogar einzelne Moleküle bis zu einhundertfach genauer zu untersuchen.
BMBF-Branchendialog Nanotechnologie und Neue Materialien für mehr Ressourceneffizienz by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Der BMBF-Branchendialog präsentiert am 06. Dezember 2012 in Berlin Ergebnisse innovativer Werkstoff- und Nanotechnologieforschung für ressourceneffizientere Technologien.
Measuring microscopic magnets by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
A recently proposed technique could measure the movement of tiny magnets along magnetic wires with precision millions of times greater than the state-of-the-art method.
Building a better battery for renewable energy storage by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
A team of researchers at Stanford and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has developed a mix of materials that shows promise as a cost-effective alternative to standard batteries - able to quickly and efficiently charge and discharge their energy over thousands of charges, with no energy loss after 1,000 charges.
Titanium oxide nanotubes used to fabricate optimized anodes for fuel cells by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Researchers succeeded in the production of a porous layer of titanium dioxide nanotubes on the titanium surface by using titanium as the sub-layer and its anodization in organic solutions.
Carbon nanotube films show promise for touchscreens by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Rice University lab creates simple method for flexible, conductive carbon nanotube sheets.
Production of fiber electrodes of electrochemical capacitors by using nanotechnology by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Researchers succeeded in the production of fiber electrodes consisted of polyaniline, multi-walled carbon nanotube and metal oxide nanoparticles through wet spinning method to be used in electrochemical capacitors.
Penn State receives $4.2 million for nanotechnology career development by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
(Penn State) Penn State will receive $4.2 million over the next three years from the National Science Foundation to continue the work of the National Nanotechnology Applications and Career Knowledge Network, founded at the university with a four-year grant from the NSF in 2008.
Effort to mass-produce flexible nanoscale electronics by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
(Case Western Reserve University) Case Western Reserve University researchers have won a $1.2 million grant to develop technology for mass-producing flexible electronic devices at a whole new level of small.As they're devising new tools and techniques to make nanowires and devices, they're creating ways to build them in flexible materials and package the electronics in waterproofing layers of durable plastics.The technology may be used to make implants that cause less damage to foldable electronics as thin as a sheet of plastic wrap.
Envisioning novel approaches for eye disease: 'The new medicine' at UC Santa Barbara by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
(University of California - Santa Barbara) By growing new retinal cells to replace those that have malfunctioned, scientists hope to one day create and fuse entire layers of fresh cells -- a synthetic patch akin to a contact lens -- as a treatment for age-related macular degeneration, the top cause of visual impairment among people over 60.
Bus service for qubits by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
(Joint Quantum Institute) Superconducting circuit technology meets semiconductor qubit technology to afford a means of moving quantum information from one place to another in future quantum computers.
New cobalt-graphene catalyst could challenge platinum for use in fuel cells by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
(Brown University) There's a new contender in the race to find an inexpensive alternative to platinum catalysts for use in hydrogen fuel cells.Brown University chemist Shouheng Sun and his students have developed a new material -- a graphene sheet covered by cobalt and cobalt-oxide nanoparticles -- that can catalyze the oxygen reduction reaction nearly as well as platinum does and is substantially more durable.
Study questions feasibility of entire genome sequencing in minutes by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
(Elsevier) The claim that nanopore technology is on the verge of making DNA analysis so fast and cheap that a person's entire genome could be sequenced in just minutes and at a fraction of the cost of available commercial methods, has resulted in overwhelming academic, industrial, and global interest.
Developing the next generation of microsensors by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
(California Institute of Technology) Setting the stage for a new class of motional sensors, researchers at Caltech and the University of Rochester have developed a new ultrasensitive, microchip-scale accelerometer that uses laser light to measure displacement. Beyond consumer electronics, such sensors could help with oil and gas exploration deep within the earth, could improve the stabilization systems of fighter jets, and could even be used in some biomedical applications where more traditional sensors cannot operate.
ORNL study confirms magnetic properties of silicon nano-ribbons by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
(DOE/Oak Ridge National Laboratory) Nano-ribbons of silicon configured so the atoms resemble chicken wire could hold the key to ultrahigh density data storage and information processing systems of the future.
University of Florida chemists pioneer new technique for nanostructure assembly by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
(University of Florida) A team of researchers from the University of Florida department of chemistry has developed a new technique for growing new materials from nanorods.
Tel Aviv University to spearhead groundbreaking nanotechnology consortium by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
(American Friends of Tel Aviv University) Tel Aviv University has been appointed to lead a new consortium of 11 laboratories dedicated to developing nano-sized drug delivery systems for the detection and treatment of cancer, infectious, and heart diseases by the Israel National Nanotechnology Initiative.TAU's Prof. Dan Peer will be the Scientific Director of the $11.5 million project.
First-of-its-kind self-assembled nanoparticle for targeted and triggered thermo-chemotherapy by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
(Brigham and Women's Hospital) Researchers describe the design and effectiveness of a first-of-its-kind, self assembled, multi-functional, NIR responsive gold nanorods that delivers a chemotherapy drug specifically targeted to cancer cells and selectively release the drug in response to an external beam of light while creating heat for synergistic thermo-chemo mediated anti-tumor efficacy.
INRS to get new nanotech labs by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
(INRS) Professors Tiago Falk and Fiorenzo Vetrone of INRS (Energy, Materials, and Telecommunications Centre) will soon have new facilities available for exploring the world of neurotechnology and nanobiophotonics. Together, their grants from the Canada Foundation for Innovation/Leaders Opportunity Fund and Ministere de l'Education, du Loisir et du Sport du Quebec add up to over $800,000 to support their research in emerging fields with a high potential of yielding future innovations in the fields of health and information and communications technology.
Manufacturing complex 3-D metallic structures at nanoscale made possible by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
(Aalto University) The fabrication of many objects, machines, and devices around us rely on the controlled deformation of metals by industrial processes such as bending, shearing, and stamping. But is this technology transferrable to nanoscale? Scientists from Aalto University in Finland and the University of Washington in the US have just demonstrated this to be possible. By combining ion processing and nanolithography they have managed to create complex three-dimensional structures at nanoscale.
Findings could be used to engineer organs by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
(University of Texas at Dallas) Biologists have teamed up with mechanical engineers from UT Dallas to conduct cell research that provides information that may one day be used to engineer organs.
New design could improve condenser performance by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) MIT researchers find that lubricated, nanotextured surfaces improved performance of condensers in power and desalination plants.
Nanofibrillar cellulose film to ease performing medical tests by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
(Aalto University) Researchers at Aalto University in Finland have succeeded in developing a durable and affordable nanofibrillar cellulose film platform to support medical testing. New environmentally friendly, reliable nanofibrillar cellulose platforms are more diverse than plastic films. New film can be made, for instance, hydrophobic, hydrophilic and the electric charge can be changed. This will enhance the possibility of conducting thousands of different medical tests at home or in physicians' receptions instead of waiting for results from laboratories.
A new take on the Midas touch -- changing the color of gold by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
(Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council) Red gold, green gold -- a ground-breaking initiative has found a way of changing the color of the world's most iconic precious metal.A University of Southampton team have discovered that by embossing tiny raised or indented patterns onto the metal's surface they can change the way it absorbs and reflects light -- ensuring our eyes don't see it as "golden" in color at all.
UC Davis researchers develop new drug delivery system for bladder cancer using nanoparticles by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
(University of California - Davis Health System) A team of UC Davis scientists has shown in experimental mouse models that a new drug delivery system allows for administration of three times the maximum tolerated dose of a standard drug therapy for advanced bladder cancer, leading to more effective cancer control without increasing toxicity.
A 'nanoscale landscape' controls flow of surface electrons on a topological insulator by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
(Boston College) Boston College physicists report new insights into the behavior of electrons on the surface of a topological insulator, a class of material with unique properties that challenge some of the oldest laws of physics.
Measuring molecules with the naked eye by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
(Brigham Young University) A new "lab on a chip" reveals the presence of ultra-low concentrations of a target molecule to the naked eye. This model for diagnostic testing could mean point-of-care results displayed visually for diseases that involve very subtle shifts in the bloodstream.
Nanotechnology helps scientists keep silver shiny by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
(American Institute of Physics) A team of researchers is investigating less labor-intensive ways to protect silver artifacts from tarnishing.
Scientists demonstrate high-efficiency quantum dot solar cells by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
(American Institute of Physics) Scientists have demonstrated the first solar cell with external quantum efficiency exceeding 100 percent for photons with energies in the solar range.
Progress in ultrasound-guided surgery may improve breast cancer treatment by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
(American Institute of Physics) A multidisciplinary team from the University of California, San Diego, is developing an alternate means of precisely tagging breast cancer tumors for removal or targeted destruction.
Research on nanocrystals to move from lab to market by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
(University of California - Riverside) UC Riverside has granted an exclusive license to The Idea Zoo, Inc., to commercialize nanotechnology research developed in the lab of a chemist at the university. The Idea Zoo, a leading developer and licensor of advanced materials and technologies headquartered in Santa Clara, Calif., was granted exclusive rights to seven patents that cover various aspects of advanced superparamagnetic colloidal nanocrystals. Specifically, the patents focus on magnetically tunable photonic crystals and the ability to commercialize them.
Strengthening fragile forests of carbon nanotubes for new MEMS applications by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
(American Institute of Physics) By using a variety of materials not commonly associated with MEMS technology, researchers have created stronger microstructures that can form precise, tall and narrow 3-D shapes -- characteristics that were never before possible in MEMS.
Polymers and FTIR Course by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Course: 7 Nov 2012 - 8 Nov 2012, San Jose, CA, United States. Organized by Semitracks, Inc..<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/8sKpLrQCYJ4" height="1" width="1" />
Semiconductor Reliability by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Course: 17 Oct 2012 - 19 Oct 2012, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Organized by Semitracks, Inc..<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/MB-H0vYnikQ" height="1" width="1" />
EOS/ESD and How to Differentiate by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Course: 15 Oct 2012 - 16 Oct 2012, Penang, Malaysia. Organized by Semitracks, Inc..<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/ZWHSdR6p8w4" height="1" width="1" />
Photonex 2012 by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Exhibition: 17 Oct 2012 - 18 Oct 2012, Coventry, United Kingdom. Organized by Xmark Media Ltd.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/cYOPOoKHOm8" height="1" width="1" />
NanoPT2013 by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Conference: 13 Feb 2013 - 15 Feb 2013, Porto, Portugal, Spain. Organized by Phantoms Foundation.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/Iw4FUbJEVLg" height="1" width="1" />
Helium Liquefiers and Cryogen free Optical Cryostat workshop by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Workshop: 28 Nov 2012, Weybridge, Surrey, United Kingdom. Organized by LOT Oriel Ltd.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/dQ_5iAGAjCI" height="1" width="1" />
Biomolecular Thermodynamics by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Conference: 26 Nov 2012 - 27 Nov 2012, Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London, United Kingdom. Organized by IOP Biological Physics Group.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/qt_yZONofuw" height="1" width="1" />
Physics in Healthcare by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Conference: 31 Oct 2012, Institute of Physics, 76 Portland Place, London, United Kingdom.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/ucoKKLgbkPw" height="1" width="1" />
ImagineNano 2013 by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Conference/exhibition: 23 Apr 2013 - 26 Apr 2013, Bilbao, Spain. Organized by Phantoms Foundation.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/zXXIj1ea5rI" height="1" width="1" />
Chesapeake PERL Receives NCI Award to Develop Protein Nanoparticle for Lung Cancer Therapy by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Chesapeake PERL has received a Small Business Innovation Research award from the National Cancer Institute to continue development of a protein nanoparticle linked to an antitumor agent as a potential...
Study Shows Lung Mucus Prevents Drug Nanoparticles from Reaching their Target Destination by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Mucus coats our airways' internal surfaces. The viscous gel humidifies the lungs and prevents viruses and other small particles like diesel soot from entering the body unchecked. Previously unclear...
Vorbeck Launches New Online Store to Expand Graphene-Based Conductive Ink Products by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Vorbeck Materials, an established leader in graphene production and engineering, announces a new online store, the completion of its latest capacity expansion, and new specialized Vor-ink™ products....
"Art of the Small" Competition Celebrates Nanotechnology-Insprired Art by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Sponsored by the Nanodermatology Society, this art contest is designed to highlight original work of an artistic nature related to nanotechnology and especially nanotechnology in dermatology. Subject...
Specially Designed Nanoparticles Carry Anti-Cancer Drugs to Tumor Cells by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
A team of UC Davis scientists has shown in experimental mouse models that a new drug delivery system allows for administration of three times the maximum tolerated dose of a standard drug therapy for...
Nanoscale Patterning Can Change the Color of Gold by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Red gold, green gold – a ground-breaking initiative has found a way of changing the colour of the world's most iconic precious metal. A University of Southampton team have discovered that by...
New Approach to Engineer Graphene's Atomic Structure with Unprecedented Precision by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
One of the keys to exploiting graphene's potential is being able to create atomic-scale defects – where carbon atoms in its flat, honeycomb-like structure are rearranged or 'knocked out' – as these...
Delong America Introduces Atomic Force Microscopy Tip Holder for LVEM5 Electron Microscope by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
Delong America is proud to announce 2 new accessories for the LVEM5 benchtop electron microscope. Tilt HolderThe tilt holder is capable of ±15° of tilt, or a total of 30° of tilt. This holder is...
Nanoscale Landscape Modifications May Produce Quantum Wire That Carries Current without Dissipation by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:26
In the relatively new scientific frontier of topological insulators, theoretical and experimental physicists have been studying the surfaces of these unique materials for insights into the behavior of...
Researchers Employ X-ray Crystallography to Build 3-D Model of TB Protein by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:25
Researchers at Johns Hopkins have figured out the three-dimensional shape of the protein responsible for creating unique bonds within the cell wall of the bacteria that cause tuberculosis. The bonds...
A first glimpse inside a photonic crystal by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:35
Smart phones, tablets and other electronic gadgets have become an integral part of our daily life. To maintain the steady development to even faster and smaller devices, it is desirable to replace their slow electrical data interconnects with fast optical connections. Photonic crystals are an ideal tool for such a purpose as they can guide and bend light on a nanometer scale. Surprisingly, researchers have so far been unable to truly probe inside these crystals how the light intensity is distributed - this, however, is a requirement for being able to accurately characterize the local density of electromagnetic states inside the crystal which is the key for controlling the interaction of light with matter. Researchers have now demonstrated a new concept to measure the intensity distribution of light inside photonic crystals. This method, for the first time, allows researchers to map the absolute strength of an electromagnetic field component inside a photonic crystal.
Gas detecting nanosensors synthesized through polymerization of pyrrole by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:35
Researchers managed to fabricate nanosensors for pollutant gas leak detection through polymerization of pyrrole.
Oscillating microscopic beads could be key to biolab on a chip (w/video) by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:35
MIT team finds way to manipulate and measure magnetic particles without contact, potentially enabling multiple medical tests on a tiny device.
One Instrument for Raman, UV-Visible-NIR and Fluorescence Spectroscopy of Microscopic Sample Areas by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:35
The 20/20 PV gives you the ability to collect Raman, UV-visible-NIR absorbance, reflectance and fluorescence spectra of microscopic samples and sample areas. This is in addition to UV-visible-NIR imaging, film thickness measurements and micro-colorimetry.
NSG Group Selects Bruker Dimension Icon Atomic Force Microscope by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:35
New levels of AFM ease of use and productivity accelerate next-generation product development.
From sunlight to hydrogen with a new hybrid material by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:35
Scientists at the Helmholtz Zentrum Berlin successfully test new hybrid material for use in photoelectrochemical hydrogen production.
Just say no to cracks by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:35
One way to use engineered nanoparticles in the real world is in thin films. Such nanoparticulate films are thin layers, sometimes only a few nanometers thick, of composite materials that contain nanoparticles. These new materials have a wide range of applications in drug delivery, nanoelectronics, magnetic storage devices, sensors, or optical coating. However, most processes used to fabricate thin nanocomposite films with high nanoparticle fillings suffer from random nanoparticle agglomeration causing formation of irregularly shaped nanostructured features within the composite. Another complication arises from cracks that develop during the fabrication of the films. Researchers have now described a simple method for fabricating thick, crack-free silica nanoparticle films by subsequent deposition of thin, crack-free silica nanoparticle multilayers.
Recent advances in cellulose nanotechnology research by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:35
PFI has the pleasure to organize the 4th research seminar about cellulose and their nano-materials. The seminar will take place at PFI in Norway, on November 14-15, 2012.
Nanotechnology device aims to prevent malaria deaths through rapid diagnosis by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:35
A pioneering mobile device using cutting-edge nanotechnology to rapidly detect malaria infection and drug resistance could revolutionise how the disease is diagnosed and treated.
Clean Energy Nanotechnology Collaboration Between Biodico and LamdaGen Corporation by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:35
Biodico, Inc. and LamdaGen Corporation have announced a collaboration whereby LamdaGen's nano-based Meta-Catalytic Surface technology will be integrated into Biodico's Research & Development programs for biomass-based diesel, combined heat and power, and biochemicals.
Electrovaya Launches Next Generation Lithium Ion SuperPolymer Cell & Battery Technology: MN-HP Series by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:35
Energy Cell Exceeds 200Wh/kg; unique non-toxic production process.
Researchers developed a new technique for controlling spatial distribution of various cell types in defined 3D microenvironments by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:35
MIT researchers have developed a new versatile technique to control spatial distribution of multiple cell types in predefined 3D geometries.
Building up stem cell production with 3D fiber scaffolds by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:35
A three-dimensional fiber scaffold promotes large-scale stem cell proliferation and differentiation to levels suitable for tissue transplants.
Smarter production of a promising water-splitting nanomaterial by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
A method is now available to produce non-aggregating semiconducting particles in water.
FEI Adds Patented UniColore Technology to Versa 3D DualBeam by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
FEI announced that it has added patented UniColore (UC) monochromated electron source to its versatile Versa 3D DualBeam system. The press release is attached along with a photo of the Versa 3D DualBeam System.
New method of resurfacing bone improves odds of successful grafts by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
Coating a bone graft with an inorganic compound found in bones and teeth may significantly increase the likelihood of a successful implant, according to Penn State researchers.
Licht auf atomaren Dimensionen by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
Physikern der Universität Würzburg ist es gelungen, Licht auf einen unvorstellbar kleinen Bereich zu konzentrieren. Geholfen hat ihnen dabei ein Effekt, der auch dann auftritt, wenn Kaffee verschüttet wird.
Nickelblock: An element's love-hate relationship with battery electrodes by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
Images show how nickel, which enhances battery capacity, also appears to hinder charging rates.
'Transient' electronics that fight disease and then dissolve away (w/video) by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
Tiny resorbable semiconductors could be used for medical implants, environmental sensors, consumer electronics.
NanoDays 2013 kit applications are now open by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
NanoDays 2013 will be held on March 30 through April 7, 2013. NanoDays is a week of community-based educational outreach events to raise public awareness of nanoscale science, technology and engineering throughout the United States.
Nano-size "Swiss army knife" for pathology and cell biology by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
A novel microfluidic probe technology being developed at the IBM Research - Zurich Lab could become a hot new tool in research laboratories and diagnostics labs.
New efficiency record for photovoltaic cells - thanks to heterojunction by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
Using amorphous and monocristalline silicon together, EPFL team achieved an astounding 22.4 percent efficiency.
Nanotechnologists create miniscule soccer balls by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
New self-assembly method produces almost perfect sphere packing.
Graphene barrier wards off metal corrosion by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
A coating so thin it's invisible to the human eye has been shown to make copper nearly 100 times more resistant to corrosion, creating tremendous potential for metal protection even in harsh environments.
All-carbon solar cells by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
It was previously thought that carbon nanotubes and other carbon nanomaterials are not well suited to make efficient solar cells. The main reason for this is that nanotubes are hard to isolate in single chiralities or in a given diameter range and only of semiconducting or metallic type, and thus it is hard to use them in a controlled way. New work has now shown that thin film solar cells made entirely out of carbon nanomaterials can achieve an efficiency similar to that of polymer solar cells at their initial research stages (a decade ago), but with much improved photostability. As a result, the use of carbon materials holds great promise towards the realization of photostable thin film solar cells.
In Nano-Pyramiden eingesperrte Elektronen by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
Dresdner Physiker konnten erstmals beobachten, wie Elektronen in einzelnen Quantenpunkten Energie aufnehmen und als Licht wieder abgeben.
REACH-CLP Helpdesk lädt zu einem Fachgespräch 'Nanomaterialien und REACH' by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
Fachgespräch "Nanomaterialien und REACH" am 23.10.2012 in der BAUA in Dortmund.
New method monitors semiconductor etching as it happens - with light by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
University of Illinois researchers have a new low-cost method to carve delicate features onto semiconductor wafers using light - and watch as it happens.
Nanoparticles glow through thick layer of tissue by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
Novel, biocompatible nanoparticles glow through more than 3 centimeters of biological tissue, demonstrating the promise of nanotechnology in biomedical imaging.
Bioengineers design rapid diagnostic tests inspired by nature by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
By mimicking nature's own sensing mechanisms, bioengineers at UC Santa Barbara and University of Rome Tor Vergata have designed inexpensive medical diagnostic tests that take only a few minutes to perform.
Graphene may replace silicon (w/video) by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
Norwegian researchers are the world's first to develop a method for producing semiconductors from graphene. This finding may revolutionise the technology industry.
Graphene: the thickness of it by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
Graphene has long shown potential for use in electronics, but difficulties in producing the material to a high enough quality has so far prevented the commercialisation of graphene-based devices.
Nanosciences: All systems go at the biofactory by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
In order to assemble novel biomolecular machines, individual protein molecules must be installed at their site of operation with nanometer precision. LMU researchers have now found a way to do just that. Green light on protein assembly.
Landscapes of taste - An electronic tongue for protein analysis by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
French researchers have presented a new and particularly simple approach to making an electronic tongue that can differentiate between proteins.
Samsung and STMicroelectronics Enter Strategic Relationship for Advanced Foundry Services at 32/28nm Technology by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
Samsung Electronics, Co., Ltd., a world leader in advanced semiconductor technology solutions, announced foundry production of STMicroelectronics' leading products using 32/28nm High-K Metal Gate (HKMG) process technology.
Probing the mysteries of cracks and stresses at the molecular level by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
Analysis of molecular-level fracture and stress mechanisms could have broad implications for understanding materials' behavior.
First NanoQ label awarded in Thailand by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
The Nanotechnology Association of Thailand presented the first NanoQ label to Supreme Products Co.,Ltd at a press conference in Bangkok on September 27. The NanoQ label certifies that the paint formulation produced by Supreme Product for use in coating the inside of the ambulance contains silver nano particles that have characteristics of anti bacteria.
EU grant to investigate nano-electro-mechanical relay-based computing by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
A collaborative consortium hopes to build the world's first fully functioning nano-electro-mechanical (NEM) relay-based processor targeting an energy efficiency that cannot be matched by transistor implementations thanks to a 2.44 million euro grant by the European Commission.
Schnelle Transistoren aus dem Drucker by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
Wissenschaftlern am Institut für Nanotechnologie (INT) des KIT ist ein entscheidender Fortschritt in der gedruckten Elektronik gelungen: Sie haben gezeigt, dass sich superschnelle Feldeffekttransistoren (FET) aus gedruckten anorganischen Oxid-Nanopartikeln herstellen lassen.
Nanoforschung: Proteinkräne für die Biofabrik by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
Um neue biomolekulare Maschinerien aufzubauen, müssen einzelne Proteine nanometergenau platziert werden. LMU-Wissenschaftler haben nun ein entsprechendes Verfahren entwickelt: Grünes Licht für Proteintransporte.
Plants exhibit a wide range of mechanical properties, engineers find by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
From an engineer’s perspective, plants such as palm trees, bamboo, maples and even potatoes are examples of precise engineering on a microscopic scale. Like wooden beams reinforcing a house, cell walls make up the structural supports of all plants. Depending on how the cell walls are arranged, and what they are made of, a plant can be as flimsy as a reed, or as sturdy as an oak. An MIT researcher has compiled data on the microstructures of a number of different plants, from apples and potatoes to willow and spruce trees, and has found that plants exhibit an enormous range of mechanical properties, depending on the arrangement of a cell wall’s four main building blocks: cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and pectin. Lorna Gibson, the Matoula S. Salapatas Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at MIT, says understanding plants’ microscopic organization may help engineers design new, bio-inspired materials. “If you look at engineering materials, we have lots of different types, thousands of materials that have more or less the same range of properties as plants,” Gibson says. “But here the plants are, doing it arranging just four basic constituents. So maybe there’s something you can learn about the design of engineered materials.” A paper detailing Gibson’s findings has been published this month in the Journal of the Royal Society Interface. To Gibson, a cell wall’s components bear a close resemblance to certain manmade materials. For example, cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin can be as stiff and strong as manufactured polymers. A plant’s cellular arrangement can also have engineering parallels: cells in woods, for instance, are aligned, similar to engineering honeycombs, while polyhedral cell configurations, such as those found in apples, resemble some industrial foams. To explore plants’ natural mechanics, Gibson focused on three main plant materials: woods, such as cedar and oak; parenchyma cells, which are found in fruits and root vegetables; and arborescent palm stems, such as coconut trees. She compiled data from her own and other groups’ experiments and analyzed two main mechanical properties in each plant: stiffness and strength. Among all plants, Gibson observed wide variety in both properties. Fruits and vegetables such as apples and potatoes were the least stiff, while the densest palms were 100,000 times stiffer. Likewise, apples and potatoes fell on the lower end of the strength scale, while palms were 1,000 times stronger.    “There are plants with properties over that whole range,” Gibson says. “So it’s not like potatoes are down here, and wood is over there, and there’s nothing in between. There are plants with properties spanning that whole huge range. And it’s interesting how the plants do that.” It turns out the large range in stiffness and strength stems from an intricate combination of plant microstructures: the composition of the cell wall, the number of layers in the cell wall, the arrangement of cellulose fibers in those layers, and how much space the cell wall takes up. In trees such as maples and oaks, cells grow and multiply in the cambium layer, just below the bark, increasing the diameter of the trees. The cell walls in wood are composed of a primary layer with cellulose fibers randomly spread throughout it. Three secondary layers lie underneath, each with varying compositions of lignin and cellulose that wind helically through each layer. Taken together, the cell walls occupy a large portion of a cell, providing structural support. The cells in woods are organized in a honeycomb pattern — a geometric arrangement that gives wood its stiffness and strength. Parenchyma cells, found in fruits and root vegetables, are much less stiff and strong than wood. The cell walls of apples, potatoes and carrots are much thinner than in wood cells, and made up of only one layer. Cellulose fibers run randomly throughout this layer, reinforcing a matrix of hemicellulose and pectin. Parenchyma cells have no lignin; combined with their thin walls and the random arrangement of their cellulose fibers, Gibson says, this may explain their cell walls’ low stiffness. The cells in each plant are densely packed together, similar to industrial foams used in mattresses and packaging. Unlike woody trees that grow in diameter over time, the stems of arborescent palms such as coconut trees maintain similar diameters throughout their lifetimes. Instead, as the stem grows taller, palms support this extra weight by increasing the thickness of their cell walls. A cell wall’s thickness depends on where it is along a given palm stem: Cell walls are thicker at the base and periphery of stems, where bending stresses are greatest. Gibson sees plant mechanics as a valuable resource for engineers designing new materials. For instance, she says, researchers have developed a wide array of materials, from soft elastomers to stiff, strong alloys. Carbon nanotubes have been used to reinforce composite materials, and engineers have made honeycomb-patterned materials with cells as small as a few millimeters wide. But researchers have been unable to fabricate cellular composite materials with the level of control that plants have perfected. “Plants are multifunctional,” Gibson says. “They have to satisfy a number of requirements: mechanical ones, but also growth, surface area for sunlight and transport of fluids. The microstructures plants have developed satisfy all these requirements. With the development of nanotechnology, I think there is potential to develop multifunctional engineering materials inspired by plant microstructures.” Karl Niklas, a professor of plant biology at Cornell University, says Gibson’s engineering parallels are fitting. Plants, in a way, he says, are “largely structural things … chemical factories that are architecturally arranged.” “Plants on Earth have evolved over three-and-a-half billion years, and that is a giant evolutionary experiment of trial and error, because the things that don’t work are extinct, and the things that do work are more abundant,” Niklas says. “We can learn things from nature and apply it to construct better panel boards, styrofoams and photovoltaics that will help society.”
New nanoparticles shrink tumors in mice by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
By sequencing cancer-cell genomes, scientists have discovered vast numbers of genes that are mutated, deleted or copied in cancer cells. This treasure trove is a boon for researchers seeking new drug targets, but it is nearly impossible to test them all in a timely fashion. To help speed up the process, MIT researchers have developed RNA-delivering nanoparticles that allow for rapid screening of new drug targets in mice. In their first mouse study, done with researchers at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and the Broad Institute, they showed that nanoparticles that target a protein known as ID4 can shrink ovarian tumors.  The nanoparticle system, described in the Aug. 15 online edition of Science Translational Medicine, could relieve a significant bottleneck in cancer-drug development, says Sangeeta Bhatia, the John and Dorothy Wilson Professor of Health Sciences and Technology and Electrical Engineering and Computer Science and a member of the David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at MIT. “What we did was try to set forth a pipeline where you start with all of the targets that are pouring out of genomics, and you sequentially filter them through a mouse model to figure out which ones are important. By doing that, you can prioritize the ones you want to target clinically using RNA interference , or develop drugs against,” says Bhatia, one of the paper’s senior authors. William Hahn, an associate professor of medicine at Harvard Medical School and the paper’s other senior author, is the leader of Project Achilles, a collaborative effort to identify promising new targets for cancer drugs from the flood of data coming from the National Cancer Institute’s cancer-genome-sequencing project. Among those potential targets are many considered to be “undruggable,” meaning that the proteins don’t have any pockets where a traditional drug could bind to them. The new nanoparticles, which deliver short strands of RNA that can shut off a particular gene, may help scientists go after those undruggable proteins. “If we could figure out how to make this work [in humans], it would open up a whole new class of targets that hadn’t been available,” says Hahn, who is also director of the Center for Cancer Genome Discovery at Dana-Farber and a senior associate member of the Broad Institute. Lead authors of the paper are Yin Ren, an MD/PhD student in Bhatia’s lab, and Hiu Wing Cheung, a postdoc in Hahn’s lab. An abundance of targets Through Project Achilles, Hahn and his colleagues have been testing the functions of many of the genes disrupted in ovarian cancer cells. By revealing genes critical to cancer-cell survival, this approach has narrowed the list of potential targets to several dozen. Typically, the next step in identifying a good drug target would be to genetically engineer a strain of mice that are missing (or overexpressing) the gene in question, to see how they respond when tumors develop. However, this normally takes two to four years. A much faster way to study these genes would be simply to turn them off after a tumor appears. RNA interference (RNAi) offers a promising way to do that. During this naturally occurring phenomenon, short strands of RNA bind to the messenger RNA (mRNA) that delivers protein-building instructions from the cell’s nucleus to the rest of the cell. Once bound, the mRNA molecules are destroyed and their corresponding proteins never get made. Scientists have been pursuing RNAi as a cancer treatment since its discovery in the late 1990s, but have had trouble finding a way to safely and effectively target tumors with this therapy. Of particular difficulty was finding a way to get RNA to penetrate tumors. Bhatia’s lab, which has been working on RNAi delivery for several years, joined forces with Hahn’s group to identify and test new drug targets. Their goal was to create a “mix and dose” technique that would allow researchers to mix up RNA-delivery particles that target a particular gene, inject them into mice and see what happens. Shrinking tumors In their first effort, the researchers decided to focus on the ID4 protein because it is overexpressed in about a third of high-grade ovarian tumors (the most aggressive kind), but not in other cancer types. The gene, which codes for a transcription factor, appears to be involved in embryonic development: It gets shut down early in life, then somehow reactivates in ovarian tumors. To target ID4, Bhatia and her students designed a new type of RNA-delivering nanoparticle. Their particles can both target and penetrate tumors, something that had never before been achieved with RNA interference. On their surface, the particles are tagged with a short protein fragment that allows them to enter tumor cells. Those fragments are also drawn to a protein found on tumor cells, known as p32. This fragment and many similar ones were discovered by Erkki Ruoslahti, a professor at the Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute at the University of California at Santa Barbara, who is also an author of the new paper. Within the nanoparticles, strands of RNA are mixed with a protein that further helps them along their journey: When the particles enter a cell, they are encapsulated in membranes known as endosomes. The protein-RNA mixture can cross the endosomal membrane, allowing the particles to get into the cell’s main compartment and start breaking down mRNA. In a study of mice with ovarian tumors, the researchers found that treatment with the RNAi nanoparticles eliminated most of the tumors. Gordon Mills, chair of the systems biology department at the University of Texas’ MD Anderson Cancer Center, says the work is an important step toward generating new targets for drugs to treat ovarian cancer, which is the fifth-leading cause of cancer deaths among women in the United States. “This approach has the potential to [validate] targets that are deemed ‘undruggable’ using current technologies and to provide sufficient throughput to screen candidates arising from high-throughput sequencing, shRNA and siRNA screens and other screens for novel potential targets,” says Mills, who was not part of the research team. The researchers are now using the particles to test other potential targets for ovarian cancer as well as other types of cancer, including pancreatic cancer. They are also looking into the possibility of developing the ID4-targeting particles as a treatment for ovarian cancer. The research was funded by the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, the National Cancer Institute, the National Institutes of Health, the Mary Kay Foundation, the Sandy Rollman Ovarian Cancer Foundation, the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and the H.L. Snyder Medical Foundation.
Patterning defect-free nanocrystal films with nanometer resolution by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
Films made of semiconductor nanocrystals — tiny crystals measuring just a few billionths of a meter across — are seen as a promising new material for a wide range of applications. Nanocrystals could be used in electronic or photonic circuits, detectors for biomolecules, or the glowing pixels on high-resolution display screens. They also hold promise for more efficient solar cells. The size of a semiconductor nanocrystal determines its electrical and optical properties. But it’s very hard to control the placement of nanocrystals on a surface in order to make structurally uniform films. Typical nanocrystal films also have cracks that limit their usefulness and make it impossible to measure the fundamental properties of these materials. Now, researchers at MIT say they have found ways of making defect-free patterns of nanocrystal films where the shape and position of the films are controlled with nanoscale resolution, potentially opening up a significant area for research and possible new applications. “We’ve been trying to understand how electrons move in arrays of these nanocrystals,” which has been difficult with limited control over the formation of the arrays, says physicist Marc Kastner, the Donner Professor of Science, dean of MIT’s School of Science and senior author of a paper published online in the journal Nano Letters. The work builds on research by Moungi Bawendi, the Lester Wolfe Professor of Chemistry at MIT and a co-author of this paper, who was one of the first researchers to precisely control nanocrystal production. Such control made it possible, among other things, to produce materials that glow, or fluoresce, in a range of different colors based on their sizes — even though they are all made of the same material. In the initial phases of the new work, postdoc Tamar Mentzel produced nanoscale patterns that emit invisible infrared light. But working on such systems is tedious, since each fine-tuning has to be checked using time-consuming electron microscopy. So when Mentzel succeeded in getting semiconductor nanocrystal patterns to glow with visible light, making them visible through an optical microscope, it meant that the team could greatly speed the development of the new technology. “Even though the nanoscale patterns are below the resolution limit of the optical microscope, the nanocrystals act as a light source, rendering them visible,” Mentzel says. The electrical conductivity of the researchers’ defect-free films is roughly 180 times greater than that of the cracked films made by conventional methods. In addition, the process developed by the MIT team has already made it possible to create patterns on a silicon surface that are just 30 nanometers across — about the size of the finest features possible with present manufacturing techniques. The process is unique in producing such tiny patterns of defect-free films, Mentzel says. “The trick was to get the film to be uniform, and to stick” to the silicon dioxide substrate, Kastner adds. That was achieved by leaving a thin layer of polymer to coat the surface before depositing the layer of nanocrystals on top of it. The researchers conjecture that tiny organic molecules on the surface of the nanocrystals help them bind to the polymer layer. Such nanocrystal patterns could have many applications, Kastner says. Because these nanocrystals can be tuned not only to emit but also to absorb a wide spectrum of colors of light, they could enable a new kind of broad-spectrum solar cell, he says. But Kastner and Mentzel’s personal interest has more to do with basic physics: Since the minuscule crystals behave almost like oversized atoms, the researchers aim to use the arrays to study fundamental processes of solids, Mentzel says. The success of this technique has already enabled new research on how electrons move in the films. Such materials could also be used to develop sensitive detectors for tiny amounts of certain biological molecules, either as screening systems for toxins or as medical testing devices, the researchers say. Douglas Natelson, a professor of physics and astronomy at Rice University who was not involved in this work, says, “The challenge in the past has been achieving thin, uniform films, patterned at high resolution, with good contact between the nanocrystals and no cracking.” The MIT team’s approach, he says, “while deceptively simple in appearance, accomplishes all of these objectives.” Natelson adds: “I think this is a very nice achievement. The fluorescence images showing the nanopatterned films are eye-popping, particularly for those who know how tough this is.” The research was supported by the U.S Army Research Office, the Department of Energy and Samsung.
Engineers achieve longstanding goal of stable nanocrystalline metals by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
Tongjai Chookajorn, left, and Heather Murdoch, the lead authors of Science paper on the design and production of new stable nanocrystalline metal alloys with exceptional strength and other properties. Photo: Dominick Reuter Most metals — from the steel used to build bridges and skyscrapers to the copper and gold used to form wires in microchips — are made of crystals: orderly arrays of molecules forming a perfectly repeating pattern. In many cases, including the examples above, the material is made of tiny crystals packed closely together, rather than one large crystal. Indeed, for many purposes, making the crystals as small as possible provides significant advantages in performance, but such materials are often unstable: The crystals tend to merge and grow larger if subjected to heat or stress. Now, MIT researchers have found a way to avoid that problem. They’ve designed and made alloys that form extremely tiny grains — called nanocrystals — that are only a few billionths of a meter across. These alloys retain their nanocrystalline structure even in the face of high heat. Such materials hold great promise for high-strength structural materials, among other potential uses. The new findings, including both a theoretical basis for identifying specific alloys that can form nanocrystalline structures and details on the actual fabrication and testing of one such material, are described in a paper published Aug. 24 in Science. Graduate student Tongjai Chookajorn, of MIT’s Department of Materials Science and Engineering (DMSE), guided the effort to design and synthesize a new class of tungsten alloys with stable nanocrystalline structures. Her fellow DMSE graduate student, Heather Murdoch, came up with the theoretical method for finding suitable combinations of metals and the proportions of each that would yield stable alloys. Chookajorn then successfully synthesized the material and demonstrated that it does, in fact, have the stability and properties that Murdoch’s theory predicted. They, along with their advisor Christopher Schuh, the Danae and Vasilis Salapatas Professor of Metallurgy and department head of DMSE, are co-authors of the paper. For decades, researchers and the metals industry have tried to create alloys with ever-smaller crystalline grains, Schuh says. But, he adds, “nature does not like to do that. Nature tends to find low-energy states, and bigger crystals usually have lower energy.” Looking for pairings with the potential to form stable nanocrystals, Murdoch studied many combinations of metals that are not found together naturally and have not been produced in the lab. “The conventional metallurgical approach to designing an alloy doesn’t think about grain boundaries,” Schuh explains, but rather focuses on whether the different metals can be made to mix together or not. But, he adds, it’s the grain boundaries that are crucial for creating stable nanocrystals. So Murdoch came up with a way of incorporating these grain boundary conditions into the team’s calculations. Why go to the trouble of designing such materials? Because they can have properties that other, more conventional metals and alloys do not, the researchers say. For example, the alloy of tungsten and titanium that the MIT researchers developed and tested in this study is likely exceptionally strong, and could find applications in protection from impacts, guarding industrial or military machinery or for use in vehicular or personal armor. But the researchers stress that this fundamental research could lead to a wide range of potential uses. “This is one case study, but there are potentially hundreds of alloys we could make,” Schuh says. Other nanocrystalline materials designed using these methods could have additional important qualities, such as exceptional resistance to corrosion, the team says. But finding materials that will remain stable with such tiny crystal grains, out of the nearly infinite number of possible combinations and proportions of the dozens of metallic elements, would be nearly impossible through trial and error. “We can calculate, for hundreds of alloys, which ones work, and which don’t,” Murdoch says. The key to designing nanocrystalline alloys, they found, is “finding the systems where, when you add an alloying element, it goes to the grain boundaries and stabilizes them,” Schuh says, rather than distributing uniformly through the material. Under classical metallurgical theory, such a selective arrangement of materials is not expected to occur. The tungsten-titanium material that Chookajorn synthesized, which has grains just 20 nanometers across, remained stable for a full week at a temperature of 1,100 degrees Celsius — a temperature consistent with processing techniques such as sintering, where powdered material is packed into a mold and heated to produce a solid shape. This means this alloy could easily become a practical material for a variety of applications where its high strength and impact resistance would be important, the researchers say. Julia Weertman, a professor emerita of materials science and engineering at Northwestern University, says this work “represents a significant advancement toward the goal of creating nanocrystalline alloys that are usable at elevated temperatures.” She adds that “Schuh and his students, using thermodynamic considerations, derived a method to choose alloys that will remain stable at high temperatures. … This research opens up the use of microstructurally stable nanocrystalline alloys in high temperature applications, such as engines for aircraft or power generation.” The work was funded by the U.S. Army Research Office.
Merging tissue and electronics by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
A 3-D reconstructed confocal fluorescence micrograph of a tissue scaffold. Image: Charles M. Lieber and Daniel S. Kohane. To control the three-dimensional shape of engineered tissue, researchers grow cells on tiny, sponge-like scaffolds. These devices can be implanted into patients or used in the lab to study tissue responses to potential drugs. A team of researchers from MIT, Harvard University and Boston Children’s Hospital has now added a new element to tissue scaffolds: electronic sensors. These sensors, made of silicon nanowires, could be used to monitor electrical activity in the tissue surrounding the scaffold, control drug release or screen drug candidates for their effects on the beating of heart tissue.  The research, published online Aug. 26 in Nature Materials, could also pave the way for development of tissue-engineered hearts, says Robert Langer, the David H. Koch Institute Professor at MIT and a senior author of the paper. “We are very excited about this study,” Langer says. “It brings us one step closer to someday creating a tissue-engineered heart, and it shows how novel nanomaterials can play a role in this field.” Lead authors of the paper are Bozhi Tian, a former postdoc at MIT and Children’s Hospital; Jia Liu, a Harvard graduate student; and Tal Dvir, a former MIT postdoc. Other senior authors are Daniel Kohane, director of the Laboratory for Biomaterials and Drug Delivery at Children’s Hospital, and Charles Lieber, a Harvard professor of chemistry. A 3-D system Until now, the only cellular platforms that incorporated electronic sensors consisted of flat layers of cells grown on planar metal electrodes or transistors. Those two-dimensional systems do not accurately replicate natural tissue, so the research team set out to design a 3-D scaffold that could monitor electrical activity, allowing them to see how cells inside the structure would respond to specific drugs. The researchers built their new scaffold out of epoxy, a nontoxic material that can take on a porous, 3-D structure. Silicon nanowires embedded in the scaffold carry electrical signals to and from cells grown within the structure. “The scaffold is not just a mechanical support for cells, it contains multiple sensors. We seed cells into the scaffold and eventually it becomes a 3-D engineered tissue,” Tian says. The team chose silicon nanowires for electronic sensors because they are small, stable, can be safely implanted into living tissue and are more electrically sensitive than metal electrodes. The nanowires, which range in diameter from 30 to 80 nanometers (about 1,000 times smaller than a human hair), can detect less than one-thousandth of a watt, which is the level of electricity that might be seen in a cell. Monitoring cell behavior In the Nature Materials study, the researchers used their scaffolds to grow cardiac, neural and muscle tissue. Using the engineered cardiac tissue, the researchers were able to monitor cells’ response to noradrenalin, a stimulant that typically increases heart rate. Gordana Vunjak-Novakovic, a professor of biomedical engineering at Columbia University, says the work could help address a great need to engineer cells that respond to electrical stimuli, which may advance the treatment of cardiac and neurological disease. “This is a beautiful example of how nanoelectronics can be combined with tissue engineering to monitor the behavior of cells,” says Vunjak-Novakovic, who was not part of the research team. The team also grew blood vessels with embedded electronic sensors and showed that they could be used to measure pH changes within and outside the vessels. Such implantable devices could allow doctors to monitor inflammation or other biochemical events in patients who receive the implants. Ultimately, the researchers would like to engineer tissues that can not only sense an electrical or chemical event, but also respond to it appropriately — for example, by releasing a drug. “It could be a closed feedback loop, much as our autonomic nervous system is,” Kohane says. “The nervous system senses changes in some part of the body and sends a message to the central nervous system, which then sends a message back to take corrective action.” The team is now further studying the mechanical properties of the scaffolds and making plans to test them in animals. The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health, the McKnight Foundation and Boston Children’s Hospital.
Oscillating microscopic beads could be key to biolab on a chip by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
If you throw a ball underwater, you’ll find that the smaller it is, the faster it moves: A larger cross-section greatly increases the water’s resistance. Now, a team of MIT researchers has figured out a way to use this basic principle, on a microscopic scale, to carry out biomedical tests that could eventually lead to fast, compact and versatile medical-testing devices. The results, based on work by graduate student Elizabeth Rapoport and assistant professor Geoffrey Beach, of MIT’s Department of Materials Science and Engineering (DMSE), are described in a paper published in the journal Lab on a Chip. MIT graduate student Daniel Montana ’11 also contributed to the research as an undergraduate. The balls used here are microscopic magnetic beads that can be “decorated” with biomolecules such as antibodies that cause them to bind to specific proteins or cells; such beads are widely used in biomedical research. The key to this new work was finding a way to capture individual beads and set them oscillating by applying a variable magnetic field. The rate of their oscillation can then be measured to assess the size of the beads. When these beads are placed in a biological sample, biomolecules attach to their surfaces, making the beads larger — a change that can then be detected through the biomolecules effect on the beads’ oscillation. This would provide a way to detect exactly how much of a target biomolecule is present in a sample, and provide a way to give a virtually instantaneous electronic readout of that information. This new technique, for the first time, allows these beads — each about one micrometer, or millionth of a meter, in diameter — to be used for precise measurements of tiny quantities of materials. This could, for example, lead to tests for disease agents that would need just a tiny droplet of blood and could deliver results instantly, instead of requiring laboratory analysis. In a paper published earlier this year in the journal Applied Physics Letters, the same MIT researchers described their development of a technique for creating magnetic tracks on a microchip surface, and rapidly transporting beads along those tracks. (The technology required is similar to that used to read and write magnetic data on a computer’s hard disk.) An operational device using this new approach would consist of a small reservoir above the tracks, where the liquid containing the magnetic beads and the biological sample would be placed. Rather than pumping the fluid and the particles through channels, as in today’s microfluidic devices, the particles would be controlled entirely through changes in applied magnetic fields. By controlling the directions of magnetic fields in closely spaced adjacent regions, the researchers create tiny areas with extremely strong magnetic fields, called magnetic domain walls, whose position can be shifted along the track. “We can use the magnetic domain walls to capture and transport the beads along the tracks,” Beach says. In the researchers’ most recent paper, Rapoport explains, they have now shown that once a bead is captured, a magnetic field can be used to shake it back and forth. Then, the researchers measure how fast the bead moves as they change the frequency of the oscillation. “The resonant frequency is a function of the bead size,” she says — and could be used to reveal whether the bead has grown in size through attachment to a target biomolecule. Besides being potentially quicker and requiring a far smaller biological sample to produce a result, such a device would be more flexible than existing chip-based biomedical tests, the researchers say. While most such devices are specifically designed to detect one particular kind of protein or disease agent, this new device could be used for a wide variety of different tests, simply by inserting a fresh batch of fluid containing beads coated with the appropriate reactant. After the test, the material could be flushed out, and the same chip used for a completely different test by inserting a different type of magnetic beads. “You’d just use it, wash it off, and use it again,” Rapoport says. There are dozens of types of magnetic beads commercially available now, which can be coated to react with many different biological materials, Beach explains, so such a test device could have enormous flexibility. The MIT team has not yet used the system to detect biological molecules. Rather, they used magnetic beads of different sizes to demonstrate that their system is capable of detecting size differences corresponding to those between particles that are bound to biological molecules and those that are not. Having succeeded in this proof of concept, the researchers’ next step will be to repeat the experiment using biological samples. “We now have all the elements required to make a sensing device,” Beach says. The next step is to combine the pieces in an operational device and demonstrate its performance. R. Sooryakumar, a professor of physics at Ohio State University who was not involved in this research, calls this an “innovative approach.” “It is very interesting how the researchers combine technologies that are well understood for applications in computing and data storage, and apply them to something completely different,” Sooryakumar says. He adds, “These magnetic devices are potentially valuable tools that could go well beyond how one may normally expect them to be used. The ramifications, for example in food safety and health care, such as pathogen or cancer detection, are indeed exciting.” The research was partly funded by MIT’s Deshpande Center for Technological Innovation, and the test devices were made at the MIT NanoStructures Laboratory .
New NIH/NHGRI grants to harness nanoscale technologies to cut DNA sequencing costs by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
(NIH/National Human Genome Research Institute) Grants of almost $19 million will help to develop technologies to dramatically reduce the cost of DNA sequencing, the National Human Genome Research Institute (NHGRI), part of the National Institutes of Health, announced today.
Stanford faculty awarded $2.2 million for innovative energy research by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
(Stanford University) Stanford's Precourt Institute, TomKat Center and Precourt Energy Efficiency Center have awarded nine faculty seed grants for cutting-edge energy research.
Precision motion tracking - Thousands of cells at a time by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
(National Science Foundation) Researchers have developed a new way to observe and track large numbers of rapidly moving objects under a microscope, capturing precise motion paths in three dimensions.
Ancient diatoms could make biofuels, electronics and health food -- at the same time by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
(Oregon State University) Diatoms, tiny marine life forms that have been around since the dinosaurs, could finally make biofuel production from algae truly cost-effective -- because they can simultaneously produce other valuable products such as semiconductors, biomedical products and even health foods.
Newly demonstrated capabilities of low-powered nanotweezers may benefit cellular-level studies by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
(University of Illinois College of Engineering) Using ultra-low input power densities, researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated for the first time how low-power "optical nanotweezers" can be used to trap, manipulate, and probe nanoparticles, including fragile biological samples.
High-flying NASA aircraft helps develop new science instruments by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
(NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center) Over the next few weeks, an ER-2 high altitude research aircraft operating out of NASA's Wallops Flight Facility in Wallops Island, Va., will take part in the development of two future satellite instruments. The aircraft will fly test models of these instruments at altitudes greater than 60,000 feet to gather information researchers can use to develop ways to handle data future spaceborne versions will collect.
NRL demonstrates high durability of nanotube transistors to the harsh space environment by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
(Naval Research Laboratory) Investigating the effects of prolonged exposure to ionizing radiation, NRL researchers demonstrate the ability of single walled carbon nanotube transistors to survive the harsh space environment.
Single-atom writer a landmark for quantum computing by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
(University of New South Wales) A research team led by Australian engineers has created the first working quantum bit based on a single atom in silicon, opening the way to ultra-powerful quantum computers of the future.In a landmark paper published today in the journal Nature, the team describes how it was able to both read and write information using the spin, or magnetic orientation, of an electron bound to a single phosphorus atom embedded in a silicon chip.
World record holder by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
(Northwestern University) Northwestern University scientists have developed a thermoelectric material that is the best in the world at converting waste heat to electricity. This is very good news once you realize nearly two-thirds of energy input is lost as waste heat. The material could signify a paradigm shift. With a very environmentally stable material that is expected to convert 15 to 20 percent of waste heat to useful electricity, thermoelectrics now could see more widespread adoption by industry.
A TECNALIA study reveals the loss of nanomaterials in surface treatments caused by water by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
(Elhuyar Fundazioa) Researchers at TECNALIA recently published a study in the prestigious science magazine, Applied Catalysis B: Environmental, which reveals the emission of nanomaterials caused by water runoff on surfaces containing nanomaterials. These surface treatments are employed in numerous consumption and construction products, so evidences of the presence of engineered nanomaterials are beginning to appear in the environment. Concerns about their toxicity for human or the environment rose in the last years, so further studies are required.
UGA researchers boost efficacy of drugs by using nanoparticles to target 'powerhouse of cells' by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
(University of Georgia) Nanoparticles have shown great promise in the targeted delivery of drugs to cells, but researchers at the University of Georgia have refined the drug delivery process further by using nanoparticles to deliver drugs to a specific organelle within cells.
Optical waveguide connects semiconductor chips by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
(Helmholtz Association of German Research Centres) A team of KIT researchers directed by Professor Christian Koos has succeeded in developing a novel optical connection between semiconductor chips. "Photonic wire bonding" reaches data transmission rates in the range of several terabits per second and is suited perfectly for production on the industrial scale. In the future, this technology may be used in high-performance emitter-receiver systems for optical data transmission and, thus, contribute to reducing energy consumption of the internet. The scientists published their results in the journal "Optics Express".
NSF awards $1.2 million grant to Clemson professor for energy storage research by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
(Clemson University) Clemson University physics professor Apparao Rao has received a $1.2 million grant from the National Science Foundation to explore the use of carbon nanomaterials for energy storage.
Sanford-Burnham's Erkki Ruoslahti named to Thomson Reuters' Nobel Prize watch list by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
(Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute) Thomson Reuters has selected Erkki Ruoslahti, M.D., Ph.D., cancer researcher and distinguished professor at Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, as one of its 2012 Citation Laureates. Citation Laureates are scientists that Thomson Reuters has predicted to win the Nobel Prize.
The original Twitter? Tiny electronic tags monitor birds' social networks by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
(University of Washington) A tiny, electronic tag provides a first look at the social lives of small animals in the wild. Using the tags to track New Caledonian crows revealed a surprising amount of interaction among the tool-using birds.
Researchers develop new 'stamping' process to pattern biomolecules at high resolution by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
(University of California - Los Angeles) UCLA researchers have used rubber stamps to pattern biomolecules in a new way. Instead of using molecular "inks" transferred from the stamps to substrates, the new method removes molecules already in place on the surface, by having them react with the stamp surface. In the new "subtractive" printing process, the rubber stamps selectively remove patterns from molecular monolayers with much higher pattern fidelity than with conventional soft lithography and can be used over and over again.
Researchers at Harvard's Wyss Institute engineer novel DNA barcode by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
(Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard) Researchers at the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard University have created a new kind of barcode that could come in an almost limitless array of styles -- with the potential to enable scientists to gather vastly more vital information, at one given time, than ever before. The method harnesses the natural ability of DNA to self-assemble, as reported today in the online issue of Nature Chemistry.
A clock that will last forever by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
(DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) Imagine a clock that will keep perfect time forever or a device that opens new dimensions into the study of quantum phenomena such as emergence and entanglement. Berkeley Lab researchers have proposed a space-time crystal based on an electric-field ion trap and the Coulomb repulsion of particles that carry the same electrical charge.
Exposing cancer's lethal couriers by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
(Case Western Reserve University) New nanotechnology developed at Case Western Reserve University detects metastases in mouse models of breast cancer before they've grown into new tissues. Images of the precise location and extent of metastases could be used to guide surgery or ablation, or the same technology used to find the cancer could be used to deliver cancer-killing drugs.
Yale researchers call for specialty metals recycling by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
(Yale University) An international policy is needed for recycling scarce specialty metals that are critical in the production of consumer goods, according to Yale researchers in Science.
Oscillating microscopic beads could be key to biolab on a chip by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) An MIT team finds a way to manipulate and measure magnetic particles without contact, potentially enabling multiple medical tests on a tiny device.
Smooth as silk 'transient electronics' dissolve in body or environment by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
(Tufts University) Tiny, biocompatible electronic devices, encapsulated in silk, dissolve harmlessly into their surroundings after a precise amount of time. These new "transient electronics" promise medical implants that never need surgical removal, as well as environmental monitors and consumer electronics that can become compost rather than trash. The researchers successfully tested a thermal device designed to monitor and prevent post-surgical infection and also created a 64 pixel digital camera.
Nickelblock: An element's love-hate relationship with battery electrodes by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
(DOE/Pacific Northwest National Laboratory) Battery materials on the nano-scale reveal how nickel forms a physical barrier that impedes the shuttling of lithium ions in the electrode, reducing how fast the materials charge and discharge. Published last week in Nano Letters, the research also suggests a way to improve the materials.
Nanosciences: All systems go at the biofactory by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
(Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München) In order to assemble novel biomolecular machines, individual protein molecules must be installed at their site of operation with nanometer precision. LMU researchers have now found a way to do just that. Green light on protein assembly!
Nanoparticles glow through thick layer of tissue by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
(University at Buffalo) An international research team has created unique photoluminescent nanoparticles that shine clearly through more than three centimeters of biological tissue -- a depth that makes them a promising tool for deep-tissue optical bioimaging.
Impact of Novel Technologies on Shelf-Life of Food by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
Workshop: 13 Sep 2012, London, United Kingdom. Organized by NanoKTN, Biosciences KTN, Leatherhead Food International.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/96KZa-IRROE" height="1" width="1" />
The Eye and the Chip by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
Conference: 9 Sep 2012 - 9 Nov 2012, Detroit, Michigan, United States. Organized by Detroit Institute of Ophthalmology.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/NYc_mL0TEes" height="1" width="1" />
Sensors & their Applications XVII by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
Conference: 16 Sep 2013 - 18 Sep 2013, Dubrovnik, Croatia. Organized by Institute of Physics Instrument Sciece and Technology Group.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/7XG4vlrE9mA" height="1" width="1" />
12th UK Annual LOT & J A Woollam Ellipsometry Seminar by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
Workshop: 30 Oct 2012, Chessington, Surrey, United Kingdom. Organized by LOT Oriel.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/mEzhlnnkNMg" height="1" width="1" />
Nanoscale Transistors (5-week online course by Mark Lundstrom) by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
Course: 29 Oct 2012 - 30 Nov 2012, online 24/7, United States. Organized by nanoHUB-U.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/YELpolYqWls" height="1" width="1" />
AES 2013, the 2nd Advanced Electromagnetics Symposium by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
Conference: 19 Mar 2013 - 22 Mar 2013, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Organized by Prof. Said Zouhdi.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/DlTNpHFwK04" height="1" width="1" />
META’13, the 4th International Conference on Metamaterials, Photonic Crystals and Plasmonics by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
Conference: 18 Mar 2013 - 22 Mar 2013, Sharjah, United Arab Emirates. Organized by Prof. Said Zouhdi.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/CJtVOq-Jw5s" height="1" width="1" />
Dielectrics 2013 by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
Conference: 10 Apr 2013 - 12 Apr 2013, University of Reading, Agriculture Building, Reading, United Kingdom. Organized by The Institute of Physics, London.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/PypDD5dTklk" height="1" width="1" />
Lithium-Sulfur-Batteries by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
Workshop: 15 Nov 2012, Dresden, Germany. Organized by Fraunhofer IWS Dresden.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/aBeXRVmUNH4" height="1" width="1" />
The Artemis Project Selects NanoH2O for 2012 Top 50 Water Tech Listing by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
By Will Soutter The Artemis Project has selected NanoH2O, a provider of cost-effective, high-performance reverse osmosis membranes for seawater desalination, for the 2012 Artemis Top 50 Water Tech...
Nano-Scale Study Provides Insight to Develop Better Electrode Materials by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
By Gary Thomas In a nano-scale study on battery materials which appeared in Nano Letters, a research team headed by Chongmin Wang from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) of the...
Samsung Starts Production of STMicroelectronics’ Next-Generation 32/28 nm SoC Products by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
By Gary Thomas Samsung Electronics, a provider of sophisticated semiconductor technology solutions, has started foundry production of STMicroelectronics’ advanced products utilizing 32/28 nm High-K...
Novel Nanoparticles Glow Through Biological Tissue, Enhancing Biomedical Imaging by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
An international research team has created unique photoluminescent nanoparticles that shine clearly through more than 3 centimeters of biological tissue -- a depth that makes them a promising tool for...
Silicon Nanostructure for Advanced Lithium-Ion Batteries by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
By Gary Thomas Steven Arnold Klankowski, a doctoral student in chemistry at the Kansas State University proposes to engineer new materials that could find applications in next generation lithium ion...
Researchers Study Electron Behavior in Nano-Pyramids by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
By Will Soutter Researchers consider quantum dots to hold great potential for technological applications. The nanoscale semiconductor materials are easy to synthesize and their behavior is akin to...
Bioengineers Design Electrochemical Nanoswitches for Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases by PloneRSS — last modified September 29, 2012 - 11:34
By Will Soutter Taking inspiration from nature, bioengineers at the University of California at Santa Barbara in conjunction with bioengineers from University of Rome Tor Vergata have devised an...
Micropunching lithography project could yield pliable cell phone, laptops by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
UT Arlington professor Cheng Luo can envision the day that a flexible cell phone could be folded and placed in a pocket like a billfold or that a laptop computer could be rolled up and stored.
Forscher entwickeln Graphen-Siliziumkarbid-Transistoren für integrierte Hochleistungselektronik by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Physiker der Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg haben ein Verfahren entwickelt, mit dem sich aus Graphen und Siliziumkarbid leistungsfähige integrierte Schaltkreise herstellen lassen.
Researchers study joints at tissue, cellular levels by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Cleveland Clinic team simulates cartilage response to loading.
Gel material with the ability in self-healing with light by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
A new photoresponsive gel has been developed using a liquid crystal as a solvent.
Multifunctional nanoplatform safely delivers tumor drugs to their target by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
A major obstacle in today's chemical cancer therapies is to achieve specific drug accumulation at tumor sites and even tumor cells, because most chemotherapeutic agents are insoluble and instable, and can not differentiate between diseased and healthy cells. This often leads to severe adverse effects on healthy tissues and limits the maximum dose that can safely administered to patients. This issue becomes more serious in the case of some highly effective therapeutic agents, given that most potent anticancer drugs exhibit acute toxicity and narrow therapeutic window, and the clinical utility may not be possible without a powerful delivery systems equipped with smart properties that can allow them to precisely access the target tissues and cells. Targeted delivery approaches using nanomedicines will be able to provide solutions to these problems.
Intel Invests in ASML to Accelerate Deployment of Extreme Ultra-violet (EUV) Lithography by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Intel commits approximately $1.0 billion to ASML's research and development programs to help accelerate deployment of new technologies for 450-millimeter (mm) wafers and extreme ultra-violet (EUV) lithography by as much as two years.
RUSNANO and Domain Associates Announce First Joint Investment by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
The two will jointly invest nearly $40 million in San Diego, CA-based, CoDa Therapeutics, a Domain portfolio company, along with current investors GBS Ventures (Melbourne, Australia) and BioPacificVentures (Auckland, NZ).
DNA nanotechnology allows scientists explore new class of synthetic vaccines by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
In a quest to make safer and more effective vaccines, scientists at the Biodesign Institute at Arizona State University have turned to a promising field called DNA nanotechnology to make an entirely new class of synthetic vaccines.
Getting intimate: scientists get closer to individual cells thanks to smarter analysis by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
A research team from Sweden and the United States has shown that a novel genomic sequencing method called 'Smart-Seq' can help scientists conduct in-depth analyses of clinically relevant single cells.
Insights into protein folding may lead to better flu vaccine by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
A new method for looking at how proteins fold inside mammal cells could one day lead to better flu vaccines, among other practical applications, say Cornell researchers.
Scientists present new method to synthesize antibacterial polyethylene nanofibres by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Researchers succeeded in the synthesis of antibacterial polyethylene fibres containing silver nanoparticles by using ultrasonic process through floating method.
European Industry Leaders Choose Optomec Aerosol Jet Systems for Printed Electronics by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Innovation Lab, CEA Liten and University of Sheffield use Aerosol Jet Systems to develop next-generation printed electronics.
Micromeritics Europe and ETH Zurich to Hold an Advanced Porous Materials Workshop by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
A two day workshop, jointly organized by Micromeritics Instrument Corporation and ETHZurich on the preparation, characterization, and application of advanced porous materials will take place in Zurich, Switzerland, August 22-23.
National Science Foundation awards $1 million to improve the efficiency of DNA fabrication by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
The National Science Foundation (NSF) has awarded a three-year $999,531 grant to Virginia Tech to optimize the laboratory processes used to make custom DNA molecules with the tools and methods of industrial engineering.
Spin specialists meet at Sydney by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Scientists working on the next generation of faster, smaller and more complex electronic devices are meeting at the University of Sydney at a conference hosted by the Worldwide Universities Network.
Single-photon transmitter could enable new quantum devices by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Long-sought goal for quantum devices - the ability to transmit single photons while blocking multiple photons - is finally achieved.
BASF Further Broadens its Technology Base and Global Market Access for Battery Materials by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
BASF wants to become the world's leading system supplier of functional materials for high-performance batteries.
Rambus and GLOBALFOUNDRIES Demonstrate Outstanding Performance and Power Results in 28nm Silicon Test Chips by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Using GLOBALFOUNDRIES' 28-nanometer super low power (28nm-SLP) process, and demonstrating the capabilities of one of the most power efficient and highest performance analog/mixed-signal offerings for advanced system-on-chip (SoC) developments, the results of the two test chips have surpassed power and performance expectations.
Quantifiably Better In Situ Electron Microscopy with Protochips' Heating and Electrical Biasing and Liquid Cell Platforms by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Protochips announces new products, collaborator presentations and product demonstrations at M&M; 2012 in Phoenix, Arizona.
A cluster of twenty atoms of gold is visualised for the first time by physicists by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Scientists at the University of Birmingham have developed a method to visualise gold on the nanoscale by using a special probe beam to image 20 atoms of gold bound together to make a cluster.
Speed and power of X-ray laser helps unlock molecular mysteries by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
New nanocrystallography technique shines light on biomolecules in action.
New-generation sensor combines lasers and mechanics by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
EPFL scientists have developed a rapid, precise opto-mechanical measurement system that can be embedded into a silicon chip. This new technology could revolutionize the domain of sensors and atomic force microscopy.
Switching the state of matter by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
New transistor harnessing strong electron correlations enables electrical switching of the state of matter.
Nanoscale scaffolds spur stem cells to cartilage repair by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
A spun 3-D scaffold of nanofibers did a better job of producing larger quantities of and a more durable type of the cartilage protein than flat, 2-D sheets of fibers did.
Entropy can lead to order, paving the route to nanostructures by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Researchers trying to herd tiny particles into useful ordered formations have found an unlikely ally: entropy, a tendency generally described as "disorder".
Photovoltaics from any semiconductor by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Berkeley Lab technology could open door to more widespread solar energy devices.
Lindau Thailand 2012 opens by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
The aims of Lindau Thailand follow the footstep of Lindau Nobel Laureate Meeting which is to "Educate, Inspire, and Connect" young researchers by allowing them to interact with peers and role models.
Employing weak interactions to engineer band structures in graphene by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Researchers are putting great efforts into developing techniques to integrate graphene into nanoelectronic devices. Unfortunately, graphene has no band gap - a critical prerequisite for transistors - which essentially restricts its wider applications in nanoelectronics. Among the various techniques developed toward introducing a bandgap in graphene, hydrogenation or fluorination can efficiently solve this problem as they can open a considerable energy gap in the band structure of graphene. However, the experimentally realized fully hydrogenated and fluorinated graphene - namely graphane and fluorographene, respectively - both have a very large energy gap, which constrains their applications in electronics. Thus at present an urgent task is to find a feasible way which could reduce the energy gap of graphane or fluorographene into a desirable range. In new work, researchers have now demonstrated theoretically, using density functional theory computations, that graphane and fluorographene can be paired together through the C-H···F-C hydrogen bonds.
Two new centres join Basque nanotechnology research by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Two new Basic Excellence Research Centres promoted by the Basque Government, the Basque Centre for Materials, Applications and Nanostructures (BCmaterials), dedicated to new materials, and the Basque Centre for Macromolecular Design & Engineering (Polymat), centred on macromolecular design, join the Basque nanoscience research.
New research method provides better insights into the world of microbes by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
A team of Luxembourg-based researchers, working at the Luxembourg Centre for Systems Biomedicine, has developed a research method that will allow scientists to study microbes in more depth than ever before.
Dolomite Given SMART Award to Develop a 'Plug and Play' Microfluidic System by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Microfluidics expert Dolomite has been awarded a SMART grant from the UK Government to develop a plug and play microfluidic system which will make microfluidics more accessible to a wider market and will increase productivity in research labs.
Nano-FTIR - A new era in modern analytical chemistry by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Researchers present a new instrumental development that solves a prime question of materials science and nanotechnology: how to chemically identify materials at the nanometer scale.
Scanning X-ray microscope reaches record resolution of 10 nanometers by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
A novel X-ray microscope at DESY offers the world's sharpest X-ray vision: Thanks to the extraordinary brilliance of DESY's X-ray source PETRA III, this microscope is able to resolve details as small as ten nanometers.
Fat gives nanoparticles a fighting chance by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Inhalable and thermo-responsive, fat-encased nanoparticles have been developed by researchers at the University of Sydney as possible treatment for lung cancer.
Bio-inspired nanoantennas for light emission by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Just as radio antennas amplify the signals of our mobile phones and televisions, the same principle can apply to light. For the first time, researchers from CNRS and Aix Marseille Universite have succeeded in producing a nanoantenna from short strands of DNA, two gold nanoparticles and a small fluorescent molecule that captures and emits light.
Moving nanotechnology from lab to market by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
UMass Lowell at the forefront of nanomanufacturing in New England
Safe handling of advanced nanomaterials by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Although scientists do not have all the information necessary for detailed risk assessment, several factors demonstrate the need to pursue the necessary research and, in the meantime, to take prudent steps to control exposures.
'Diving board' sensors key to DNA detection by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
A tiny vibrating cantilever sensor could soon help doctors and field clinicians quickly detect harmful toxins, bacteria and even indicators of certain types of cancer from small samples of blood or urine.
Plasmon-based control of magneto-optical properties of ferromagnetic nanoparticles by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Researchers carried out a theoretical and empirical investigation about the effect of the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) on the magneto-optical activity in ferromagnetic nanoparticles.
NanotechItaly - International Conference on nanotechnologies by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
The idea to launch Nanotechitaly was based on the awareness that even if activity and interest for nanotechnology in Italy is quite strong and involves considerable resources both in the public research and industry, there wasn't an high level Conference on nanotechnology dealing with application and technology transfer.
Kavli award winners by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Kavli award winners, from left, Mildred Dresselhaus, Ann Graybiel and Jane Luu Photos (L to R): Dominick Reuter; Kent Dayton; Kavli Foundation Three MIT researchers — Mildred Dresselhaus, Ann Graybiel and Jane Luu — are among seven pioneering scientists worldwide named today as this year’s recipients of the Kavli Prizes . These prizes recognize scientists for their seminal advances in astrophysics, nanoscience and neuroscience, and include a cash award of $1 million in each field. This year’s laureates were selected for their fundamental contributions to our understanding of the outer solar system; the differences in material properties at the nanoscale and at larger scales; and how the brain receives and responds to sensations such as sight, sound and touch. The Kavli Prizes, awarded biennially since 2008, are a partnership between the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, the Kavli Foundation and the Norwegian Ministry of Education and Research. Today’s announcement was made by Nils Christian Stenseth, president of the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters, and transmitted live at the opening event of the World Science Festival in New York. King Harald of Norway will present the Kavli Prizes to the laureates at an award ceremony in Oslo on Sept. 4. The ceremony will be hosted by Åse Kleveland, former minister of culture for Norway, and Alan Alda, the actor, director, writer and longtime supporter of science. The Kavli Prize in Astrophysics The 2012 Kavli Prize in Astrophysics is shared by Jane X. Luu, a technical staff member at MIT’s Lincoln Laboratory, along with David C. Jewitt of the University of California at Los Angeles and Michael E. Brown of the California Institute of Technology. They received the prize “for discovering and characterizing the Kuiper Belt and its largest members, work that led to a major advance in the understanding of the history of our planetary system.” In 1992, Luu and Jewitt spotted the first known object in the Kuiper Belt, a region beyond Neptune’s orbit that is more than 30 times Earth’s distance from the sun. Since then, they and others have identified more than 1,000 Kuiper Belt objects. Astronomers are particularly interested in these objects because their composition may resemble the primordial material that coalesced around the sun during the formation of our solar system. Brown followed in Luu and Jewitt’s footsteps by searching the Kuiper Belt for planet-sized bodies. In 2005, he found Eris, an object about the same size as Pluto but with 27 percent more mass. As a result, astronomers revisited the definition of planets; Pluto was subsequently relegated to “dwarf planet” status. The Kavli Prize in Nanoscience The 2012 Kavli Prize in Nanoscience is given to Mildred S. Dresselhaus, Institute Professor Emerita of Electrical Engineering and Physics at MIT, “for her pioneering contributions to the study of phonons, electron-phonon interactions, and thermal transport in nanostructures.” Over five decades, Dresselhaus has made multiple advances explaining how the nanoscale properties of materials can vary from those of the same materials at larger dimensions. Her early work on carbon fibers and on compounds made up of different chemical species sandwiched between graphite layers — known as graphite intercalation compounds — laid the groundwork for later discoveries concerning buckyballs, carbon nanotubes and graphene. The Kavli Prize in Neuroscience The Kavli Prize in Neuroscience is shared by Ann M. Graybiel, Institute Professor in MIT’s Department of Brain and Cognitive Science, along with Cornelia Isabella Bargmann of Rockefeller University and Winfried Denk of the Max Planck Institute for Medical Research. They received the prize “for elucidating basic neuronal mechanisms underlying perception and decision.” Graybiel, of MIT’s McGovern Institute for Brain Research, has identified and traced neural loops connecting the outer layer of the brain to a region called the striatum, revealing that these form the basis for linking sensory cues to actions involved in habitual behaviors. Her work has provided a deeper understanding of human ability to make or break habits, and of what goes wrong in disorders involving movement and repetitive behaviors. Bargmann has used nematode worms to provide insights into the molecular controls of animal behavior, yielding important advances including the discovery of the first evidence that odor response is governed by neurons; of the intracellular signaling pathways between odorant receptors and sensory neurons; and of specific neurons, receptors and neurotransmitters involved in behavior adaption following experience. Two techniques developed by Denk have answered major questions about how information is transmitted from the eye to the brain: His invention of two-photon laser scanning fluorescence microscopy allowed imaging of living tissue at greater depths and with less unwanted background fluorescence, and his development of serial block-face electron microscopy allowed detailed 3-D imaging of minute structures within tissue.  About the Kavli Prizes Kavli Prize recipients are chosen biennially by committees of distinguished international scientists recommended by the Chinese Academy of Sciences, the French Academy of Sciences, the Max Planck Society, the National Academy of Sciences and the Royal Society. The recommendations of these prize committees are then confirmed by the Norwegian Academy of Science and Letters. The Kavli Prizes were initiated by and named after Fred Kavli, founder and chairman of the Kavli Foundation, which is dedicated to advancing science for the benefit of humanity, promoting public understanding of scientific research, and supporting scientists and their work. For more detailed information on each of the prizes and the 2012 laureates, see the Kavli Prize website .
Researchers achieve RNA interference, in a lighter package by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Using a technique known as “nucleic acid origami,” chemical engineers have built tiny particles made out of DNA and RNA that can deliver snippets of RNA directly to tumors, turning off genes expressed in cancer cells. To achieve this type of gene shutdown, known as RNA interference, many researchers have tried — with some success — to deliver RNA with particles made from polymers or lipids. However, those materials can pose safety risks and are difficult to target, says Daniel Anderson, an associate professor of health sciences and technology and chemical engineering, and a member of the David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at MIT. The new particles, developed by researchers at MIT, Alnylam Pharmaceuticals and Harvard Medical School, appear to overcome those challenges, Anderson says. Because the particles are made of DNA and RNA, they are biodegradable and pose no threat to the body. They can also be tagged with molecules of folate (vitamin B9) to target the abundance of folate receptors found on some tumors, including those associated with ovarian cancer — one of the deadliest, hardest-to-treat cancers. Anderson is senior author of a paper on the particles appearing in the June 3 issue of Nature Nanotechnology. Lead author of the paper is former MIT postdoc Hyukjin Lee, now an assistant professor at Ewha Womans University in Seoul, South Korea. Genetic disruption RNA interference (RNAi), a natural phenomenon that cells use to control their gene expression, has intrigued researchers since its discovery in 1998. Genetic information is normally carried from DNA in the nucleus to ribosomes, cellular structures where proteins are made. Short interfering RNA (siRNA) disrupts this process by binding to the messenger RNA molecules that carry DNA’s instructions, destroying them before they reach the ribosome. siRNA-delivering nanoparticles made of lipids, which Anderson’s lab and Alnylam are also developing, have shown some success in turning off cancer genes in animal studies, and clinical trials are now underway in patients with liver cancer. Nanoparticles tend to accumulate in the liver, spleen and lungs, so liver cancer is a natural target — but it has been difficult to target such particles to tumors in other organs. “When you think of metastatic cancer, you don’t want to just stop in the liver,” Anderson says. “You also want to get to more diverse sites.” Another obstacle to fulfilling the promise of RNAi has been finding ways to deliver the short strands of RNA without harming healthy tissues in the body. To avoid those possible side effects, Anderson and his colleagues decided to try delivering RNA in a simple package made of DNA. Using nucleic acid origami — which allows researchers to construct 3-D shapes from short segments of DNA — they fused six strands of DNA to create a tetrahedron (a six-edged, four-faced pyramid). A single RNA strand was then affixed to each edge of the tetrahedron. “What’s particularly exciting about nucleic acid origami is the fact that you can make molecularly identical particles and define the location of every single atom,” Anderson says. To target the particles to tumor cells, the researchers attached three folate molecules to each tetrahedron. Short protein fragments could also be used to target the particles to a variety of tumors. Using nucleic acid origami, the researchers have much more control over the composition of the particles, making it easier to create identical particles that all seek the right target. This is not usually the case with lipid nanoparticles, says Vinod Labhasetwar, a professor of biomedical engineering at the Lerner Research Institute at the Cleveland Clinic. “With lipid particles, you’re not sure what fraction of the particles are really getting to the target tissue,” says Labhasetwar, who was not involved in this study. Circulate and accumulate In studies of mice implanted with human tumors, the researchers found that once injected, the nucleic acid nanoparticles circulated in the bloodstream with a half-life of 24 minutes — long enough to reach their targets. The DNA tetrahedron appears to protect the RNA from rapid absorption by the kidneys and excretion, which usually happens with RNA administered on its own, Anderson says. “If you take a short interfering RNA and inject it into the bloodstream, it is typically gone in six minutes. If you make a bigger nanoparticle using origami methods, it increases its ability to avoid excretion through the kidneys, thereby increasing its time circulating in the blood” he says. The researchers also showed that the nucleic acid nanoparticles accumulated at the tumor sites. The RNA delivered by the particles was designed to target a gene for luciferase, which had been added to the tumor cells to make them glow. They found that in treated mice, luciferase activity dropped by more than half. The team is now designing nanoparticles to target genes that promote tumor growth, and is also working on shutting off genes involved in other genetic diseases. The research was funded by the National Institutes of Health, the Center for Cancer Nanotechnology Excellence, Alnylam Pharmaceuticals and the National Research Foundation of Korea.
Teaching self-assembling structures a new trick by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Researchers at MIT have found a new way of making complex three-dimensional structures using self-assembling polymer materials that form tiny wires and junctions. The work has the potential to usher in a new generation of microchips and other devices made up of submicroscopic features. Although similar self-assembling structures with very fine wires have been produced before, this is the first time the structures have been extended into three dimensions with different, independent configurations on different layers, the researchers say. The research is published this week in the journal Science. Caroline Ross, the Toyota Professor of Materials Science and Engineering at MIT, says there has been “a lot of interest” among semiconductor researchers in finding ways to produce chip features that are much narrower than the wavelength of light — and hence narrower than what can be achieved using present light-based fabrication systems. Self-assembly based on polymers has been an active area of research, Ross says, but “what we did in this paper was push it into the third dimension.” She and her colleagues began by creating an array of tiny posts on a substrate of silicon; they then coated the surface with materials called block copolymers, which have a natural tendency to assemble into long cylindrical structures. By carefully controlling the initial spacing of the posts, Ross explains, the researchers were able to set the spacing, angles, bends and junctions of the cylinders that form on the surface. What’s more, she says, “Each of the two layers of cylinders can be independently controlled using these posts,” making it possible to create complex 3-D configurations. Amir Tavakkoli, a visiting graduate student from the National University of Singapore and lead author of the Science paper, says many researchers have tried to produce complex arrangements of nanoscale wires through self-assembly. But earlier attempts used complex processes with many steps, and had failed to control the resulting configurations well. The new system is simpler, Tavakkoli says, and “not only controlled the alignment of the wires, but showed we can even have sharp bends and junctions” at precisely determined locations. “It wasn’t expected to be possible,” says MIT graduate student Kevin Gotrik. “It was a surprising result. We stumbled upon it, and then had to figure out how it works.” There were a number of barriers to overcome in making the system practical, Gotrik says. For example, the posts fabricated on the surface are the key to controlling the whole self-assembly process, but they need to be quite a bit taller than they are wide, which could lead some to topple over; the MIT team ultimately found materials and shapes that would be stable. “We explored a wide range of conditions,” Gotrik says. Graduate student Adam Hannon says the team used computer simulations of the structures in order to explore the effects of different post configurations on the double-layer 3-D structure. These simulations were compared with the most promising structures observed in the laboratory to get greater insight into how to control the resulting structures that formed. So far, the MIT team has only produced two-layer configurations, but Alfredo Alexander-Katz, an assistant professor of materials science and engineering, says, “I think it would be feasible to go to three layers” while still maintaining full control over the arrangement of structures on each layer. A key enabling technology was the MIT lab’s capability, using electron-beam lithography, to make 10-nanometer-wide cylindrical posts with precisely controlled positioning. These posts, in turn, guide the positioning of the self-assembling cylinders. Karl Berggren, an associate professor of electrical engineering, says it’s as if the lithography puts down an array of pillars, and these pillars then control the complex, multilevel routing of crisscrossing highways. In earlier work, the MIT researchers had demonstrated that this self-assembly method could be used to create wires that are much finer than those that can be made by existing photolithography techniques for producing microchips — and thus help lead the way to next-generation devices that pack even more wires and transistors into a given area of silicon chip material. “In principle, this is scalable to quite small dimensions,” Ross says, far smaller than the 15-nanometer width of the cylinders produced so far — which is already less than half the width of the finest wires in existing microchips. The basic technologies involved are compatible with existing manufacturing equipment in the semiconductor industry, the researchers say. But this is basic research that is probably still far from actual chip production, they caution. Within the next year the team hopes to use this methodology to produce a simple electronic device. The technique is not limited to producing wires on a silicon chip, Ross and her colleagues say. The same method could be used to create 3-D arrays of other kinds of materials — such as proteins or DNA molecules, for example — in order to create biological detectors or drug-delivery systems. Craig Hawker, a professor of chemistry and biochemistry at the University of California at Santa Barbara, says this is a “far-reaching finding,” which “goes a long way to fulfilling the demands of the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors, which calls for a robust, commercially viable nanopatterning technique.” Hawker adds, “The robustness and power of this approach may also lead to applications outside lithography and microelectronics, with impact in water purification, membranes and organic photovoltaics.” He says this work is “a spectacular example of multidisciplinary work, with advances in chemistry, physics and nanotechnology seamlessly combined to address a critical technological and important societal problem.” The work was supported by the Semiconductor Research Corporation, the FENA Center, the Nanoelectronics Research Initiative, the Singapore-MIT Alliance, the National Science Foundation, Tokyo Electron and Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Company.
Textured surface may boost power output of thin silicon solar cells by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Highly purified silicon represents up to 40 percent of the overall costs of conventional solar-cell arrays — so researchers have long sought to maximize power output while minimizing silicon usage. Now, a team at MIT has found a new approach that could reduce the thickness of the silicon used by more than 90 percent while still maintaining high efficiency. The secret lies in a pattern of tiny inverted pyramids etched into the surface of the silicon. These tiny indentations, each less than a millionth of a meter across, can trap rays of light as effectively as conventional solid silicon surfaces that are 30 times thicker. The new findings are being reported in the journal Nano Letters in a paper by MIT postdoc Anastassios Mavrokefalos, professor Gang Chen, and three other postdocs and graduate students, all of MIT's Department of Mechanical Engineering. "We see our method as enhancing the performance of thin-film solar cells," Mavrokefalos says, but it would actually work for any silicon cells. "It would enhance the efficiency, no matter what the thickness," he says. Graduate student Matthew Branham, a co-author of the paper, says, "If you can dramatically cut the amount of silicon [in a solar cell] … you can potentially make a big difference in the cost of production. The problem is, when you make it very thin, it doesn't absorb light as well." The operation of a solar cell occurs in two basic steps: First, an incoming particle of light, called a photon, enters and is absorbed by the material, rather than reflecting off its surface or passing right through. Second, electrons knocked loose from their atoms when that photon is absorbed then need to make their way to a wire where they can be harnessed to produce an electrical current, rather than just being trapped by other atoms. Unfortunately, most efforts to increase the ability of thin crystalline silicon to trap photons — such as by creating a forest of tiny silicon nanowires on the surface — also greatly increase the material's surface area, increasing the chance that electrons will recombine on the surface before they can be harnessed. The new approach avoids that problem. The tiny surface indentations — the team calls them "inverted nanopyramids" — greatly increase light absorption, but with only a 70 percent increase in surface area, limiting surface recombination. Using this method, a sheet of crystalline silicon just 10 micrometers (millionths of a meter) thick can absorb light as efficiently as a conventional silicon wafer 30 times as thick. That could not only reduce the amount of expensive, highly purified silicon needed to make the solar cells, Mavrokefalos explains, but also cut the weight of the cells, which in turn would reduce the material needed for frames and supports. The potential cost savings are "not only in the cell material, but also in the installation costs," he says. In addition, the technique developed by Mavrokefalos and his colleagues uses equipment and materials that are already standard parts of silicon-chip processing, so no new manufacturing machinery or chemicals would be required. "It's very easy to fabricate," Mavrokefalos says, yet "it attacks big problems." To create the tiny dents, the researchers use two sets of overlapping laser beams to produce exceptionally tiny holes in a layer of material — called a photoresist — that is deposited on top of the silicon. This interference lithography technique is scalable to a large area. Following several intermediate steps, a chemical called potassium hydroxide is used to dissolve away parts of the surface that were not covered by the photoresist. The crystal structure of silicon leads this etching process to produce the desired pyramidal shapes in the surface, Mavrokefalos says. So far, the team has only carried out the first step toward making the new type of solar cells, producing the patterned surface on a silicon wafer and demonstrating its improvement in trapping light. The next step will be to add components to produce an actual photovoltaic cell and then show that its efficiency is comparable to that of conventional solar cells. The expectation is that the new approach should produce energy-conversion efficiencies of about 20 percent — compared to 24 percent for the best current commercial silicon solar cells — but this remains to be proved in practice. Chen, the Carl Richard Soderberg Professor of Power Engineering and director of MIT's Pappalardo Micro and Nano Engineering Laboratories, says that if all goes well, the system could lead to commercial products in the near future. Chen says the idea was developed after analyzing a great variety of possible surface configurations in computer simulations, and finding the arrangement that showed the biggest potential improvements in performance. But many teams around the world are pursuing a host of approaches to improving solar-cell performance using different materials, manufacturing methods and configurations. "It's hard to pick a winner," he says, but this approach has great promise. "We are pretty upbeat that this is a viable approach." Yi Cui, an associate professor of materials science and engineering at Stanford University, says this work produced "very exciting results. … The potential practical impact of this work could be significant, since it provides an effective structure for photon management for enabling thin cells." Cui says that since the expense of the silicon material "contributes significantly to the cost of solar cells," developing thin silicon solar cells which can still absorb photons efficiently "is important for reducing the cost." The work, which also involved postdocs Sang Eon Han and Selcuk Yerci, was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy's Sunshot Program and by the National Science Foundation.
A new approach to water desalination by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
The availability of fresh water is dwindling in many parts of the world, a problem that is expected to grow with populations. One promising source of potable water is the world’s virtually limitless supply of seawater, but so far desalination technology has been too expensive for widespread use. Now, MIT researchers have come up with a new approach using a different kind of filtration material: sheets of graphene, a one-atom-thick form of the element carbon, which they say can be far more efficient and possibly less expensive than existing desalination systems. When water molecules (red and white) and sodium and chlorine ions (green and purple) in saltwater, on the right, encounter a sheet of graphene (pale blue, center) perforated by holes of the right size, the water passes through (left side), but the sodium and chlorine of the salt are blocked. Graphic: David Cohen-Tanugi “There are not that many people working on desalination from a materials point of view,” says Jeffrey Grossman, the Carl Richard Soderberg Associate Professor of Power Engineering in MIT’s Department of Materials Science and Engineering, who is the senior author of a paper describing the new process in the journal Nano Letters. Grossman and graduate student David Cohen-Tanugi, who is the lead author of the paper, aimed to “control the properties of the material down to the atomic level,” producing a graphene sheet perforated with precisely sized holes. They also added other elements to the material, causing the edges of these minuscule openings to interact chemically with water molecules — either repelling or attracting them. “We were very pleasantly surprised” by how well graphene performed compared to existing systems in computer simulations, Grossman says. One common method of desalination, called reverse osmosis, uses membranes to filter the salt from the water. But these systems require extremely high pressure — and hence, energy use — to force water through the thick membranes, which are about a thousand times thicker than graphene. The new graphene system operates at much lower pressure, and thus could purify water at far lower cost, the researchers say. While reverse osmosis has been used for decades, “really basic mechanisms of separating salt from water are not well understood, and they are very complex,” Cohen-Tanugi says, adding that it’s very difficult to do experiments at the scale of individual molecules and ions. But the new graphene-based system, he says, works “hundreds of times faster than current techniques, with the same pressure” — or, alternatively, the system could run at similar rates to present systems, but with lower pressure. The key to the new process is very precise control over the size of the holes in the graphene sheet. “There’s a sweet spot, but it’s very small,” Grossman says — between pores so large that salt could pass through and ones so small that water molecules would be blocked. The ideal size is just about one nanometer, or one billionth of a meter, he says. If the holes are just a bit smaller — 0.7 nanometers — the water won’t flow through at all. Other research groups have worked to create pores in graphene, Cohen-Tanugi says, but at very different sizes and for very different purposes — for example, making much bigger holes to filter large molecules such as DNA, or to separate different kinds of gases. The methods used for those processes were not precise enough to make the tiny holes needed for desalination, he says, but more advanced techniques — such as helium-ion bombardment to make precise holes in graphene, chemical etching and self-assembling systems — might be suitable. For now, Grossman and Cohen-Tanugi have been doing computer simulations of the process to determine its optimal characteristics. “We will begin working on prototypes this summer,” Grossman says.  Because graphene is the subject of research into many different applications, there has been a great deal of work on finding ways of making it inexpensively and in large quantities. And for desalination, because graphene is such a strong material — pound for pound, it’s the strongest material known — the membranes should be more durable than those presently used for reverse osmosis, Grossman says. In addition, the material needed for desalination does not need to be nearly as pure as for electronic or optical uses, he says: “A few defects don’t matter, as long as they don’t open it up” so that salt could pass through. Joshua Schrier, an assistant professor of chemistry at Haverford College, says, “Previous simulations had studied the flow of water through very small holes in graphene, and the design of pores that selectively allow ion passage, but — despite the social and engineering relevance to desalination — nobody had thought to examine the intersection of these two fields.” The work by the MIT team could open a whole new approach to desalination, he says. Schrier adds, “Manufacturing the very precise pore structures that are found in this paper will be difficult to do on a large scale with existing methods.” However, he says, “the predictions are exciting enough that they should motivate chemical engineers to perform more detailed economic analyses of … water desalination with these types of materials.” The work was funded by the MIT Energy Initiative and a John S. Hennessy Fellowship, and used computer resources from the National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center.
Researchers explain how dye-based nanotubes can help harvest light’s energy by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Companies that make commercial solar cells are happy if they can achieve 20 percent efficiency when converting sunlight to electricity; an improvement of even 1 percent is seen as major progress. But nature, which has had billions of years to fine-tune photosynthesis, can do much better: Microorganisms called green sulfur bacteria, which live deep in the ocean where there’s hardly any light available, manage to harvest 98 percent of the energy in the light that reaches them. Now, researchers led by an MIT postdoc have analyzed an artificial system that models the light-capturing method used by deep-sea bacteria. Further advances in understanding fundamental light-harvesting processes may yield entirely new approaches to capturing solar energy, the researchers say. Their results were reported July 1 in the journal Nature Chemistry. The artificial system, described in an earlier paper by postdoc Dörthe M. Eisele of MIT’s Research Laboratory of Electronics and collaborators, consists of a self-assembling system of dye molecules that form perfectly uniform double-walled nanotubes. These tubes — only about 10 nanometers wide but thousands of times longer — are similar in size, shape and function to natural receptors used by green sulfur bacteria that collect energy from the tiny amounts of sunlight that penetrate to the ocean’s depths. “It is one of nature’s great secrets, how to harvest light so efficiently,” Eisele says. Her co-authors include Moungi G. Bawendi and the late Robert J. Silbey, both MIT professors of chemistry, along with collaborators at Humboldt University of Berlin, the University of Texas at Austin and the University of Groningen in the Netherlands. Eisele says this particular type of nanotube is unlikely to find practical applications. Rather, she says, these experiments were designed to study underlying principles that could then be used to find optimal materials for particular uses. “This system is so interesting because it is a beautiful model system,” she says, for analyzing how such structures respond to light. Unlike typical self-assembling systems in which each structure can be a bit different, these double-walled tubes, made from a cyanine-based dye, form perfectly uniform shapes and sizes. That makes it a perfect model system, Eisele explains, because knowing that all the nanotubes in a solution are identical makes it possible to study their properties in bulk, rather than having to isolate the response of each individual tube. One fundamental question the team wanted to address was whether the two concentric cylinders of the double-walled tubes were working together as an integrated system for capturing light’s energy, or whether each cylinder was acting on its own. To answer that question, Eisele and her team devised a way of deactivating one of the two cylinders by oxidizing the outer wall’s molecules. “The tubular structure is still intact, but it kills the optical response of the outer wall, so what is left is the optical response of the inner wall,” she says. “It’s a very simple and elegant way to isolate the spectrum of the inner wall.” By comparing optical responses when both cylinders are functioning and when only one is working, it’s possible to determine how much interaction is taking place between the two cylinders. “When you watch the dynamics of the redox reaction,” Eisele says, “you see that these two cylinders can be seen as two separate systems.” Characterizing this simplified artificial structure may allow researchers to build more efficient light-harvesting devices. “Nature had millions of years to optimize” how organisms capture energy, Eisele says; understanding how it did so may lead to better man-made systems. “We don’t want to improve the efficiency of solar cells we have now,” she says. “We want to learn from nature how to build entirely new light-harvesting devices.” Gregory Scholes, the D.J. LeRoy Distinguished Professor of Chemistry at the University of Toronto, who was not involved in this work, says, “The researchers used exquisite experiments to test how the nanoscale components of this system interact after photoexcitation.” He adds that the work “provides important insights into the design of large assemblies of molecules for applications in ‘light harvesting.’” The research was supported by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft, the Integrative Research Institute for the Sciences in Berlin, the National Science Foundation, the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation, the Department of Energy Center for Excitonics, the Army Research Office and the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.
Dripping faucets inspire new way of creating structured particles by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Researchers at MIT and the University of Central Florida (UCF) have developed a versatile new fabrication technique for making large quantities of uniform spheres from a wide variety of materials — a technique that enables unprecedented control over the design of individual, microscopic particles. The particles, including complex, patterned spheres, could find uses in everything from biomedical research and drug delivery to electronics and materials processing. The method is an outgrowth of a technique for making long, thin fibers out of multiple materials, developed over the last several years at MIT by members of the same team. The new work, reported this week in the journal Nature, begins by making thin fibers using this earlier method, but then adds an extra step of heating the fibers to create a line of tiny spheres — like a string of pearls — within these fibers. Conventional fabrication of microscopic spherical particles uses a “bottom-up” approach, growing the spheres from even tinier “seeds” — an approach that is only capable of producing very tiny particles. This new “top-down” method, however, can produce spheres as small as 20 nanometers (about the size of the smallest known viruses) or as large as two millimeters (about the size of a pinhead), meaning the biggest particles are 100,000 times larger than the smallest ones. But for a given batch, the size of the spheres produced can be extremely uniform — much more so than is possible with the bottom-up approach. Yoel Fink, a professor of materials science and director of MIT’s Research Laboratory of Electronics, whose group developed the earlier method of producing multimaterial fibers, explains that the new method can also produce multimaterial spheres consisting of different layers or segments. Even more complex structures are possible, he says, offering unprecedented control over particle architecture and composition. The most likely short-term uses of the new process would be for biomedical applications, says Ayman Abouraddy, a former postdoc in Fink’s lab who is now an assistant professor at UCF’s College of Optics and Photonics. “Typical applications of nanoparticles today are for controlled drug delivery,” he says. But with this new process, two or more different drugs — even ones that are ordinarily incompatible — could be combined inside individual particles, and released only once they’ve reached their intended destination in the body. More exotic possibilities could arise later, Abouraddy adds, including new “metamaterials” with advanced optical properties that were previously unattainable. The basic process involves creating a large polymer cylinder, called a “preform,” containing an internal semiconductor cylinder core that is an exact scaled-up model of the final fiber structure; this preform is then heated until it is soft enough to be pulled into a thin fiber, like taffy. The internal structure of the fiber, made of materials that all soften at the same temperature, retains the internal configuration of the original cylinder. The fiber is then heated further so that the semiconducting core forms a liquid, producing a series of discrete spherical droplets within the otherwise continuous fiber. This same phenomenon causes a diminishing stream of water from a faucet to eventually break up into a stream of droplets, famously captured by MIT’s Harold “Doc” Edgerton in his stroboscopic images. Abouraddy says that during a visit to ancient temples in his native Egypt, he found an inscription showing that even long ago, people were aware of this degradation of a stream of water into droplets — caused by a process now known as Rayleigh instability. In the new fabrication process developed by Abouraddy and Fink’s team, these droplets “freeze” in place as the fiber solidifies; the preform’s polymer sheath then keeps them locked in place until it is later dissolved away. This overcomes another problem with traditional production of nanoparticles: their tendency to clump together. In principle, Abouraddy says, the discovery of this process for forming particles could have come many years ago. But even after theorists had predicted that such instabilities could form in the process of drawing fibers, the new discovery came by accident: Joshua Kaufman, a student of Abouraddy’s, was trying to produce fibers, but his experiment “failed” when the fiber kept breaking up into droplets. Abouraddy, who knew about the theoretical possibility, immediately recognized that this “failure” was actually an important discovery — one that had eluded previous attempts simply because the process requires a precise combination of timing, temperature and materials. Kaufman is the lead author of the Nature paper. “The ability to harness and control the fleeting fluid instability within a fiber has profound implications for future devices,” Fink says, and could lead to a wide variety of uses. While the group has demonstrated the production of six-segment “beach ball” particles, in principle much more complex structures, made of a variety of materials, should also be possible, he says. Any material that could be drawn into a fiber could now, in principle, be made into a small particle. John Ballato, director of the Center for Optical Materials Science and Engineering Technologies at Clemson University, who was not involved in the new work, says that this fiber-draw production method is “a major step forward for the scale-up of designed nanoparticles with controlled chemistry and shape.” In addition to its potentially useful applications, Ballato says, this method “also yields new scientific insights” into Rayleigh instability, “a phenomenon that has been well studied, as anyone with a leaky faucet knows all too well.” Malvin Teich, a professor emeritus of electrical and computer engineering at Boston University and Columbia University, says the approach used by these researchers “is novel and inventive, and it promises significant applications ranging from the fabrication of unique metamaterials to the delivery of drugs.” He adds, “The work is particularly significant because the approach is scalable, and because of the superior uniformity of the sizes and shapes of the particles produced, compared to what can be achieved using other techniques.” The work was supported by the National Science Foundation, the Air Force Office of Scientific Research and the Army Research Office through MIT’s Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies.
Funding boost for silicon carbide super chip by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
(Griffith University) Griffith University's Queensland Micro- and Nanotechnology Centre has been awarded $1 million in research funding by the State Government to develop production processes for a silicon carbide microchip.
Gold nanoparticles could treat prostate cancer with fewer side effects than chemotherapy by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
(University of Missouri-Columbia) University of Missouri scientists have found a more efficient way of targeting prostate tumors by using gold nanoparticles and a compound found in tea leaves. This new treatment would require doses that are thousands of times smaller than chemotherapy and do not travel through the body inflicting damage to healthy areas.
Carbon-based transistors ramp up speed and memory for mobile devices by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
(American Friends of Tel Aviv University) Elad Mentovich of Tel Aviv University's Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology says that, by using carbon molecules called C60 to build a sophisticated new memory transistor, he has found a way to increase both speed and memory on the devices -- and his solution is ready to be produced at existing high-tech fabrication facilities.
Synthetic Biology Scorecard finds federal agencies responding to bioethics report by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
(Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars/Science and Technology Innovation Program) The updated Synthetic Biology Scorecard finds increased federal action towards addressing recommendations from the presidential bioethics commission, though more work is needed.
Human eye inspires clog-free ink jet printer invented by MU researcher by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
(University of Missouri-Columbia) University of Missouri engineers recently invented a clog-preventing nozzle cover by mimicking the human eye.
Toughened silicon sponges may make tenacious batteries by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
(Rice University) Researchers at Rice University and Lockheed Martin reported this month that they've found a way to make multiple high-performance anodes from a single silicon wafer. The process uses simple silicon to replace graphite as an element in rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, laying the groundwork for longer-lasting, more powerful batteries for such applications as commercial electronics and electric vehicles.
Man-made pores mimic important features of natural pores by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
(University at Buffalo) Inspired by nature, an international research team has created synthetic pores that mimic the activity of cellular ion channels, which play a vital role in human health by severely restricting the types of materials allowed to enter cells.
World record: Scientists from northern Germany produce the lightest material in the world by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
(Kiel University) A network of porous carbon tubes that is three-dimensionally interwoven at nano and micro level - this is the lightest material in the world. It weights only 0.2 milligrams per cubic centimeter, and is therefore 75 times lighter than Styrofoam, but it is very strong nevertheless. Scientists of Kiel University and Hamburg University of Technology have named their joint creation "aerographite."
Research update: Chips with self-assembling rectangles by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Researchers at MIT have developed a new approach to creating the complex array of wires and connections on microchips, using a system of self-assembling polymers. The work could eventually lead to a way of making more densely packed components on memory chips and other devices.
'Sifting' liquid at the molecular level by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
(Drexel University) Drexel University engineers continue to drive research into the use of carbon nanotubes, straw-like structures that are more than 1,000 times thinner than a single human hair. Their most recent development uses the tiny tubes to separate liquids within a solution.
Nanoscale scaffolds and stem cells show promise in cartilage repair by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
(Johns Hopkins Medical Institutions) Johns Hopkins tissue engineers have used tiny, artificial fiber scaffolds thousands of times smaller than a human hair to help coax stem cells into developing into cartilage, the shock-absorbing lining of elbows and knees that often wears thin from injury or age.
Engineering the 'smart health care' of the future by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
(University of Nottingham) Pioneering scientists at the University of Nottingham have won a £1.2 million grant for research into the engineering of nanomaterials that could transform the global healthcare industry.
UGA researchers develop rapid diagnostic test for pathogens, contaminants by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
(University of Georgia) Using nanoscale materials, researchers at the University of Georgia have developed a single-step method to rapidly and accurately detect viruses, bacteria and chemical contaminants. The scientists were able to detect compounds such as lactic acid and albumin in highly diluted samples and in mixtures that included dyes and other chemicals. Their results suggest the same system could be used to detect pathogens and contaminants in biological mixtures such as food, blood, saliva and urine.
RIT professor receives National Science Foundation grant to improve on-chip networks with wireless technology by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
(Rochester Institute of Technology) Amlan Ganguly, an assistant professor of computer engineering at Rochester Institute of Technology, is part of the team that received an $800,000 grant from the National Science Foundation. He will be working to develop the new infrastructure that could increase the speed and reduce the power usage in today's computer processors, augmenting the on-chip network of miniature copper wires with wireless interconnects.
Modifying surfaces by means of nanostructured reliefs to prevent the spread of bacteria by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
(Elhuyar Fundazioa) Researchers at the Agrobiotechnology Institute of Navarre are designing nanostructured reliefs on surfaces. The idea is to enable these surfaces to acquire antibacterial properties and make them more resistant to the formation of bacterial biofilms. The authors of the research say that in the preliminary tests carried out so far with the bacteria Staphylococcus aureus a reduction in the region of 65-70 percent has been confirmed in the adhesion of bacteria.
Radiation damage bigger problem in microelectronics than previously thought by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
(Vanderbilt University) The amount of damage that radiation causes in electronic materials may be at least 10 times greater than previously thought. That is the surprising result of a new characterization method that uses a combination of lasers and acoustic waves to that allows scientists to peer through solid materials to pinpoint the size and location of detects buried deep inside with unprecedented precision.
American Chemical Society's highest honor to Peter Stang by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
(University of Utah) Only months after collecting a National Medal of Science from President Barack Obama, University of Utah organic chemist Peter J. Stang has won the highest honor from the world's largest scientific group: the 2013 Priestley Medal from the American Chemical Society.
UCSB assistant professor of physics receives US Presidential Science Award by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
(University of California - Santa Barbara) Ania Bleszynski Jayich, an assistant professor in physics at UC Santa Barbara, has been awarded the prestigious Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers. The award is the highest honor the nation can bestow on a scientist or engineer at the beginning of his or her career.
Vanderbilt-led team to develop 'microbrain' to improve drug testing by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
(Vanderbilt University) Creating a device out of human cells that simulates brain chemistry is the goal of a $2.1 million grant which is part of major new federal initiative to develop a series of "organs on a chip" designed to improve the drug development process.
Fine tuning cardiac ablation could lead to quicker results for patients with arrhythmias by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
(University of Michigan Health System) University of Michigan heart researchers are examining a new method for cardiac ablation that could help patients get closer to an arrhythmia-free life without repeat hospital visits.
UK research paves way to a scalable device for quantum information processing by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
(National Physical Laboratory) Researchers at NPL have demonstrated for the first time a monolithic 3D ion microtrap array which could be scaled up to handle several tens of ion-based quantum bits. The research, published in Nature Nanotechnology, shows how it is possible to realize this device embedded in a semiconductor chip, and demonstrates the device's ability to confine individual ions at the nanoscale.
Scientists explore new class of synthetic vaccines by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
(Arizona State University) In a study published in the journal Nano Letters, Biodesign immunologist Yung Chang joined forces with her colleagues, including DNA nanotechnology innovator Hao Yan, to develop the first vaccine complex that could be delivered safely and effectively by piggybacking onto self-assembled, three-dimensional DNA nanostructures.
World's smallest semiconductor laser created by University of Texas scientists by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
(University of Texas at Austin) Physicists at the University of Texas at Austin, in collaboration with colleagues in Taiwan and China, have developed the world's smallest semiconductor laser, a breakthrough for emerging photonic technology with applications from computing to medicine.
Entropy can lead to order, paving the route to nanostructures by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
(University of Michigan) Researchers trying to herd tiny particles into useful ordered formations have found an unlikely ally: Entropy, a tendency generally described as "disorder."
Nano-FTIR - A new era in modern analytical chemistry by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
(Elhuyar Fundazioa) Researchers from the nanoscience research center NanoGUNE, the university of Munich and Neaspec GmbH present a new instrumental development that solves a prime question of materials science and nanotechnology: how to chemically identify materials at the nanometer scale.
BioProcess International™ China by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Conference: 21 Aug 2012 - 22 Aug 2012, Shanghai, China. Organized by IBC Life Sciences .<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/FgRSleoMU0c" height="1" width="1" />
Nanotechnology: Exploring Practical Solutions in Agriculture, Food and Biological Systems by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Workshop: 15 Jul 2012 - 18 Jul 2012, Orillia, Ontario, Canada. Organized by Canadian Society for Bioengineering.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/N69qSJ0blxw" height="1" width="1" />
Less is More: Innovations in Forensic Science Nanotechnology by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Conference: 10 Nov 2012, Coventry, United Kingdom. Organized by The Forensic Science Society.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/lsnAidaPUiE" height="1" width="1" />
Conference on In-Situ and Correlative Electron Microscopy (CISCEM) by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Conference: 6 Nov 2012 - 7 Nov 2012, Saarbruecken, Germany. Organized by INM - Leibniz Institute for New Materials.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/WX4563PuZOY" height="1" width="1" />
Annual International Conference on Optoelectronics, Photonics & Applied Physics (OPAP 2013) by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Conference: 4 Feb 2013 - 5 Feb 2013, Singapore, Singapore, Singapore. Organized by Global Science & Technology Forum (GSTF).<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/MEYF5YsuAV8" height="1" width="1" />
Annual International Conference on Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Chemical Process (CCECP 2013) by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Conference: 25 Feb 2013 - 26 Feb 2013, Singapore, Singapore, Singapore. Organized by Global Science & Technology Forum (GSTF).<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/p9pOCmI4uUw" height="1" width="1" />
FDA Regulatory Control of the Drug Development Process and Investigator Responsibility in the Process by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Workshop: 28 Aug 2012, San Fransisco, California, United States. Organized by Online Compliance Panel.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/acdiSHF3oVw" height="1" width="1" />
Cold and Ultracold Molecules by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
Conference: 19 Nov 2012 - 23 Nov 2012, Obergugl, Austria. Organized by European Science Foundation.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/sY7Wu9NN9m4" height="1" width="1" />
Veeco’s SPECTOR-HT Ion Beam Deposition System Qualified for Mass Production of Optical Filters by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
By Will Soutter Ocean Thin Films, a precision optical coating provider, has qualified the SPECTOR-HT ion beam deposition system from Veeco Instruments, a process equipment solution provider for the...
German Researchers to Use Oxford Instruments Plasma Etch Tool for HBLED Development by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
A leader in plasma etch and deposition systems for research and industry, Oxford Instruments has recently received an order for a PlasmaPro System100 ICP180 etch tool to the Otto-von-Guericke...
Polyonics Rolls Out New Flexible Substrates for Printed Electronics by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
By Gary Thomas Polyonics has unveiled a new line of clear and white top coated polyimide flexible substrates called PolyFLEX for use in the printed electronics industry. This family of substrates...
Arizona Researchers Probe DNA Nanostructures to Trigger Immune Responses by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 11:10
Researchers at Arizona State University’s Biodesign Institute have exploited DNA nanotechnology to produce a new group of synthetic vaccines that can trigger an immune response. <br><br> The team explored how DNA nanostructures to carry the molecules that can trigger an immune response in the body. From that work, they created synthetic vaccine complexes (resembling natural virus without the disease component), and attached them to pyramid-shaped DNA nanostructures which could interact with target cell.
MIT, Harvard Team Finds Way for Lasers to Transmit Single Photons by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 11:28
Harvard University and MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) scientists have identified a method to convert a laser beam in a controlled way into a stream of individual photons. The discovery is seen as an important step toward the development of quantum systems. <br><br> The novel method aims to create an electronic ‘gate’ through which only one photon could pass at a time. To achieve this, the team focused a laser beam through a dense cloud of rubidium atoms at 40 µK to produce an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) state, which makes the normally opaque cloud of atoms to be excited while letting photons pass through at slow speed. The team’s approach put the atoms in a Rydberg state, which does not allow a second photon to pass through if the first one is yet to emerge out of the cloud. The system could form the basis of a single photon switch and also quantum logic gates where one photon could switch another photon’s direction of travel.
Optomec Aerosol Jet Deposition Systems Favored by Major European Companies by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
By Will Soutter Optomec, a global supplier of additive manufacturing solutions for applications ranging from medical to solar to electronics and defence markets, announced the selection of its Aerosol...
CPSC Files Complaint Against Maxfield + Oberton Over Dangerous Buckyballs and Buckycube Toys by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
By Gary Thomas The United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) has filed a complaint against New York based Maxfield &amp; Oberton Holdings LLC over their Buckyballs and Buckycube desk...
Denton Vacuum Delivers First Altor Series Sputtering System by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
By Cameron Chai Denton Vacuum, a provider of thin film technology systems for production, has dispatched the first of its Altor series of sputtering system to a well-known cardiac rhythm management...
Novel Probe Beam Lets Scientists Observe Gold Nanoparticle Clusters for the First Time by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 11:20
Novel Beam Lets Scientists Observe Gold Nanoparticle Clusters for the First Time Researcher from University of Birmingham have developed a novel probe beam technique that for the first time lets scientists use an electron microscope to observe the actual atomic structure of gold nanoparticle clusters. The technique lets scientists of a 20-atom gold cluster. <br><br> The team, led by Richard Palmer, Professor of Experimental Physics and Head of the Nanoscale Physics Research Laboratory at the University of Birmingham, is trying to accelerate the production rate of these very accurately defined nano-objects to speed their commercial use in pharmaceuticals, perfumery, fine chemicals, oil refining, food, and in clean energy.
New Transistor Enables Electrical Switching of State of Matter by PloneRSS — last modified July 28, 2012 - 10:59
By Will Soutter A research team at the RIKEN Advanced Science Institute has created a first-of-its-kind transistor that utilizes the electrostatic build-up of electrical charge on a...
Networking for nanotechnology by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
The NAPANIL Industrial Day was the second such event focusing on the myriad issues impacting this area of research, and was hosted by the Germany-based group micro resist technology GmbH.
Forscher bauen Minikraftwerke aus Silizium by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Ungenutzte Waerme in nutzbare Energie umwandeln - das kann der 18 mm breite, 21 mm lange und 6 mm hohe thermoelektrische Generator aus Nano-Silizium.
Why is the (nano-)dose question so important? by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
A substance might potentially be harmful or even toxic for a biological system, provided that the quantity or the concentration (the "dose") is high enough. This principle forms the basis for health standards which determine the maximum permissible concentration of contaminations, for example in food, water or in the environment. Dose calculation is of high relevance for risk assessment as well as for regulations, for instance to determine the maximum allowable concentration of chemicals and particles or to determine other limits which do not cause health problems. In the case of nanomaterials, especially for nanoparticles there is to date, no limit regulation or any other regulation referring to dose, because the definition of dose for nanoparticles does not exist. The wherefores will be explained in this dossier.
Cost-effective, high quality carbon nanotubes by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Researchers compared carbon nanotube synthesis techniques to develop the most cost-effective high quality electronic device products.
Medical membrane nanotechnology from lab to market by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
EU-funded researchers established a Network of Excellence for membrane nanotechnology relevant to the medical sector that should enhance cooperation between research and small business.
Nanotechnology for solar energy conversion systems by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Researchers extensively characterised the self-organisation of nanotubes and developed novel compositions particularly appropriate to solar energy conversion applications.
Researchers test nanofiltration solar desalination system for arid land agriculture by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
The solar-powered system uses nanofiltration membranes to treat the local brackish water, resulting in high-quality desalinated irrigation water. The results of the Josefowitz Oasis Project indicate that irrigation with desalinated water yields higher productivity from water and inorganic fertilizers compared with current practices.
Nano-structured polymer-based materials from scrap by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
EU-funded researchers developed polymer blends and processing techniques facilitating recovery of scrap from industrial processes. Advances in this area have the potential to decrease costs and waste while protecting the environment.
Illuminating lassos for cellular insights by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Real-time monitoring of RNA splicing in living cells moves a step closer with the development of a novel fluorescent probe.
Researchers realize the world's first oxidation reaction with well-defined molecular alignment and spin directions by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
The NIMS Nano Characterization Unit developed the world's first O2 molecular beam which enables us to designate the alignment of the molecular axis and spin direction.
Unique Environmental Isolation Solutions for Unique Research Applications by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Herzan designs customer specific environmental isolation solutions that focus on three important tenants - excellent value, premium quality and exceptional performance.
Nanotechnology for for a sustainable process industry: Metal-free catalysts by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
The EU has awarded 4 million Euros to a new research project that will develop carbon materials to replace precious metals needed in catalysis. The research will help make the production of chemicals and commodities greener.
In Nullkommanichts durch den Quantentunnel by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Wenn Elektronen die Energie zum Ueberwinden einer Energiebarriere nicht haben, "tunneln" sie einfach durch diese Barriere hindurch - in der Quantenwelt nichts Ungewoehnliches. Forscher koennen den Zeitpunkt des Austritts aus der Barriere zum ersten Mal exakt bestimmen.
Thousands of invisibility cloaks trap a rainbow by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Many people anticipating the creation of an invisibility cloak might be surprised to learn that a group of American researchers has created 25 000 individual cloaks.
High-speed method to aid search for solar energy storage catalysts by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Scientists describe a new high-throughput method to identify electrocatalysts for water oxidation.
Super-sensitive tests could detect diseases earlier by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Scientists have developed an ultra-sensitive test that should enable them to detect signs of a disease in its earliest stages.
Computer model pinpoints prime materials for efficient carbon capture by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Model vets millions of structures to find ones that will improve efficiency of current technology.
'Unzipped' carbon nanotubes could help energize fuel cells and batteries by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes riddled with defects and impurities on the outside could replace some of the expensive platinum catalysts used in fuel cells and metal-air batteries, according to scientists at Stanford University.
MURI grants target controlled propagation of signals in nanostructures, cell-based sensors by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Rice University scientists are set to lead one research team and are part of a second among the 23 awards announced by the Department of Defense (DOD) under its Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative (MURI) program. The DOD grants total $155 million.
Spaceprobe reveals details about charged 'nanograins' near Saturn moon Enceladus by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Charged dust grains found in geyser plumes that supply outer ring of Saturn.
Graphene-control cutting using an atomic force microscope-based nanorobot by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Current methods can tailor graphene, however, lack of real-time sensor feedback during patterning and cutting results in an open-loop manufacturing process. This greatly limits the cutting precision of graphene and reduces the efficiency of device manufacture. Therefore, a closed-loop fabrication method using interaction forces as real-time feedback is needed to tailor graphene into desired edge structures and shapes in a controllable manner.
Manual now available for the Archimedes semiconductor device simulation software by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
A complete manual for Archimedes the GNU package for semiconductor device simulations, is now available.
RUSNANO Board of Directors Approves Company's First Exit from Investment Project by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
RUSNANO sells its 27.6 percent equity stake in Advanced Technologies Center, a leading producer of scanning probe microscopes and atomic scales. The sale to the project applicant, NPP CPT will generate IRR of 29.5 percent on RUSNANO's investment.
Researchers develop a scalable method to produce improved yields of single-layer graphene by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
London Centre for Nanotechnology researchers have developed a scalable solution-based method that produces greatly improved yields of single-layer graphene, which can then be deposited onto substrates.
Frequency stabilization in nonlinear nanomechanical oscillators by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Using expertise in the design and fabrication of micro- and nanoscale devices, a new strategy for engineering low-frequency noise oscillators capitalizes on the intrinsic nonlinear phenomena of micro- and nanomechanical resonators.
Ultrasmall nanoparticles show promise as anti-cancer agents by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Researchers in China showed that nanoparticles smaller than 10 nm in diameter accumulate more efficiently and penetrate more deeply in tumors relative to their larger counterparts. Their findings have significant implications for the development of nanomaterials to diagnose and treat cancer. The enhanced tumor accumulation of the ultrasmall nanoparticles may be due, at least in part, to their prolonged blood circulation time. In contrast, most nanomaterials that enter the blood are rapidly cleared by tissue-resident macrophages in the liver and spleen. Ultimately, the ability of ultrasmall nanoparticles to diffuse deep within the tumor bulk may enable the design of nanoparticles that can carry therapeutic and diagnostic agents more efficiently into tumors.
SCENIHR receives request for a scientific opinion on nanosilver by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
The Scientific Committee on Emerging and newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR) has received a request for a scientific opinion on Nanosilver: safety, health and environmental effects and role in antimicrobial resistance.
Stunning image of Olympicene - the smallest possible five-ringed structure (w/video) by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Scientists have created and imaged the smallest possible five-ringed structure - about 100,000 times thinner than a human hair - and you'll probably recognize its shape.
Mentor Graphics and GLOBALFOUNDRIES Collaborate on 20nm Fill Solutions by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Mentor Graphics Corporation today announced that GLOBALFOUNDRIES will use the SmartFill facilities of the Calibre YieldEnhancer product to enable advanced fill techniques for 20nm manufacturing processes.
The first chemical circuit developed by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
The Organic Electronics research group at Linkoping University previously developed ion transistors for transport of both positive and negative ions, as well as biomolecules. They have now succeeded in combining both transistor types into complementary circuits, in a similar way to traditional silicon-based electronics.
Study shows how nanometer size tiny substances present in polluted-air or smoke can trigger human diseases by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Researchers investigated if there was a common underlying mechanism contributing to the development of autoimmune diseases operating at the level of human cells following their exposure to nanoparticles of different nature and possessing diverse physical and chemical properties.
NanoBio-Europe conference by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
The 8th NanoBio-Europe conference will take place on 18 - 20 June 2012 in Varese (Lombardy, Northern Italy), showcasing the latest international developments in nanobiotechnology, and providing a platform to facilitate interdisciplinary communications, new collaborations for delegates from academic, industrial and clinical backgrounds.
Classical and quantum physics hand in hand with optical nano-antennas by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Scientists have developed a new theoretical framework which includes quantum effects to describe the sub-nanometric properties of optical nano-antennas.
ECHA further updates Guidance on Information Requirements and Chemical Safety Assessment for nanomaterials by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
The European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) has published three new appendices, updating Chapters R.8, R.10 and R.14 of the Guidance on Information Requirements and Chemical Safety Assessment. These appendices focus on Chemical Safety Assessment and provide further recommendations for registering nanomaterials.
Oxford Instruments to Present World's Smallest Footprint EMR (EPR/ESR) System by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Oxford Instruments, the supplier of Magnetic Resonance solutions for QA laboratories in the food, agricultural, healthcare, polymer, and energy sectors, will present their latest benchtop EMR and NMR systems at ACHEMA 2012.
INIC announces formation of a network for safety and health affairs in nanotechnology by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Chairman of the Standardization Committee of Iran Nanotechnology Initiative Council (INIC) Dr. Ali Beitollahi announced the formation of a network for safety and health affairs in the field of nanotechnology.
Neue Publikation der BAuA zu Nanomaterialien am Arbeitsplatz by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
In der neu vorliegenden, von Bundesanstalt fuer Arbeitsschutz und Arbeitsmedizin (BAuA) und Verband der Chemischen Industrie (VCI) aktualisierten und konkretisierten "Empfehlung fuer die Gefaehrdungsbeurteilung bei Taetigkeiten mit Nanomaterialien am Arbeitsplatz" werden u. a. neue Erkenntnisse zu Messverfahren und Messstrategien beruecksichtigt.
Functionalizing living cells through nanotechnology by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Modifying living cell by coating them with a nanolayer of functional materials in order to provide them with new structural and functional features has developed into a popular research area for bionanotechnology researchers. In contrast to genetic manipulation techniques, here the functionality of a cell is modified simply by attaching polymers or nanoparticles to the cell's surface. A recent Perspective paper covers the most interesting and promising work in this area and presents an outlook the major potential future directions. The article focuses on on cell encapsulation with Layer-by-Layer (LbL) self-assembly via sequential adsorption of oppositely charged components: polyelectrolytes, nanoparticles, and proteins.
Photo-chemical reaction using a carbon nanotube as a test tube by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Numerical simulation of the effect of pulse-laser irradiation to molecules in a carbon nanotube.
Targeted nanoparticles show success in clinical trials by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Targeted therapeutic nanoparticles that accumulate in tumors while bypassing healthy cells have shown promising results in an ongoing clinical trial, according to a new paper. The nanoparticles feature a homing molecule that allows them to specifically attack cancer cells, and are the first such targeted particles to enter human clinical studies. Originally developed by researchers at MIT and Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston, the particles are designed to carry the chemotherapy drug docetaxel, used to treat lung, prostate and breast cancers, among others. In the study, which appears April 4 in the journal Science Translational Medicine, the researchers demonstrate the particles’ ability to target a receptor found on cancer cells and accumulate at tumor sites. The particles were also shown to be safe and effective: Many of the patients’ tumors shrank as a result of the treatment, even when they received lower doses than those usually administered. “The initial clinical results of tumor regression even at low doses of the drug validates our preclinical findings that actively targeted nanoparticles preferentially accumulate in tumors,” says Robert Langer, the David H. Koch Institute Professor in MIT’s Department of Chemical Engineering and a senior author of the paper. “Previous attempts to develop targeted nanoparticles have not successfully translated into human clinical studies because of the inherent difficulty of designing and scaling up a particle capable of targeting tumors, evading the immune system and releasing drugs in a controlled way.” The Phase I clinical trial was performed by researchers at BIND Biosciences, a company cofounded by Langer and Omid Farokhzad in 2007. “This study demonstrates for the first time that it is possible to generate medicines with both targeted and programmable properties that can concentrate the therapeutic effect directly at the site of disease, potentially revolutionizing how complex diseases such as cancer are treated,” says Farokhzad, director of the Laboratory of Nanomedicine and Biomaterials at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, associate professor of anesthesia at Harvard Medical School and a senior author of the paper. Researchers at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Weill Cornell Medical College, TGen Clinical Research Services in Phoenix and the Karmanos Cancer Institute in Detroit were also involved in the study. Targeted particles Langer’s lab started working on polymeric nanoparticles in the early 1990s, developing particles made of biodegradable materials. In the early 2000s, Langer and Farokhzad began collaborating to develop methods to actively target the particles to molecules found on cancer cells. By 2006, they had demonstrated that targeted nanoparticles can shrink tumors in mice, paving the road for the eventual development and evaluation of a targeted nanoparticle called BIND-014, which entered clinical trials in January 2011. For this study, the researchers coated the nanoparticles with targeting molecules that recognize a protein called PSMA (prostate-specific membrane antigen), found abundantly on the surface of most prostate tumor cells as well as many other types of tumors. One of the challenges in developing effective drug-delivery nanoparticles, Langer says, is designing them so they can perform two critical functions: evading the body’s normal immune response and reaching their intended targets. “You need exactly the right combination of these properties, because if they don’t have the right concentration of targeting molecules, they won’t get to the cells you want, and if they don’t have the right stealth properties, they’ll get taken up by macrophages,” says Langer, also a member of the David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at MIT. The BIND-014 nanoparticles have three components: one that carries the drug, one that targets PSMA, and one that helps evade macrophages and other immune-system cells. A few years ago, Langer and Farokhzad developed a way to manipulate these properties very precisely, creating large collections of diverse particles that could then be tested for the ideal composition. “They systematically made a set of materials that varied in the properties they thought would matter, and developed a way to screen them. That’s not been done in this kind of setting before,” says Mark Saltzman, a professor of biomedical engineering at Yale University who was not involved in this study. “They’ve taken the concept from the lab into clinical trials, which is quite impressive.” All of the particles are made of polymers already approved for medical use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Clinical results The Phase I clinical trial involved 17 patients with advanced or metastatic tumors who had already gone through traditional chemotherapy. In Phase I trials, researchers evaluate a potential drug’s safety and study its effects in the body. To determine safe dosages, patients were given escalating doses of the nanoparticles. So far, doses of BIND-014 have reached the amount of docetaxel usually given without nanoparticles, with no new side effects. The known side effects of docetaxel have also been milder. In the 48 hours after treatment, the researchers found that docetaxel concentration in the patients’ blood was 100 times higher with the nanoparticles as compared to docetaxel administered in its conventional form. Higher blood concentration of BIND-014 facilitated tumor targeting resulting in tumor shrinkage in patients, in some cases with doses of BIND-014 that correspond to as low as 20 percent of the amount of docetaxel normally given. The nanoparticles were also effective in cancers in which docetaxel usually has little activity, including cervical cancer and cancer of the bile ducts. The researchers also found that in animals treated with the nanoparticles, the concentration of docetaxel in the tumors was up to tenfold higher than in animals treated with conventional docetaxel injection for the first 24 hours, and that nanoparticle treatment resulted in enhanced tumor reduction. The Phase I clinical trial is still ongoing and continued dose escalation is underway; BIND Biosciences is now planning Phase II trials, which will further investigate the treatment’s effectiveness in a larger number of patients. Initial development of the particles at MIT and Brigham and Women’s Hospital was supported by funding from the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering, the David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research at MIT, the Prostate Cancer Foundation, a gift from David H. Koch and the Dana-Farber Harvard Cancer Center Prostate Cancer SPORE. Subsequent development by BIND Biosciences was supported by funding from the National Cancer Institute, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, and BIND Biosciences.
Nano-sized ‘factories’ churn out proteins by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Drugs made of protein have shown promise in treating cancer, but they are difficult to deliver because the body usually breaks down proteins before they reach their destination. To get around that obstacle, a team of MIT researchers has developed a new type of nanoparticle that can synthesize proteins on demand. Once these “protein-factory” particles reach their targets, the researchers can turn on protein synthesis by shining ultraviolet light on them. The particles could be used to deliver small proteins that kill cancer cells, and eventually larger proteins such as antibodies that trigger the immune system to destroy tumors, says Avi Schroeder, a postdoc in MIT’s David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research and lead author of a paper appearing in the journal NanoLetters. “This is the first proof of concept that you can actually synthesize new compounds from inert starting materials inside the body,” says Schroeder, who works in the labs of Robert Langer, MIT’s David H. Koch Institute Professor, and Daniel Anderson, an associate professor of health sciences and technology and chemical engineering. Langer and Anderson are also authors of the paper, along with former Koch Institute postdocs Michael Goldberg, Christian Kastrup and Christopher Levins Mimicking nature The researchers came up with the idea for protein-building particles when trying to think of new ways to attack metastatic tumors — those that spread from the original cancer site to other parts of the body. Such metastases cause 90 percent of cancer deaths. They decided to mimic the protein-manufacturing strategy found in nature. Cells store their protein-building instructions in DNA, which is then copied into messenger RNA. That mRNA carries protein blueprints to cell structures called ribosomes, which read the mRNA and translate it into amino acid sequences. Amino acids are strung together to form proteins. “We wanted to use machinery that has already proven to be very effective. Ribosomes are used in nature, and they were perfected by nature over billions of years to be the best machine that can produce protein,” Schroeder says. The researchers designed the new nanoparticles to self-assemble from a mixture that includes lipids — which form the particles’ outer shells — plus a mixture of ribosomes, amino acids and the enzymes needed for protein synthesis. Also included in the mixture are DNA sequences for the desired proteins. The DNA is trapped by a chemical compound called DMNPE, which reversibly binds to it. This compound releases the DNA when exposed to ultraviolet light. “You want to be able to trigger it so the system turns on only when you want it to work,” Schroeder says. “When the particles are hit by light, the DNA is released from a caging compound and then can enter the cycle of producing the protein.” Programmable factories In this study, particles were programmed to produce either green fluorescent protein (GFP) or luciferase, both of which are easily detected. Tests in mice showed that the particles were successfully prompted to produce protein when UV light shone on them. Waiting until the particles reach their destination before activating them could help prevent side effects from a particularly toxic drug, says James Heath, a professor of chemistry at the California Institute of Technology. However, more testing must be done to demonstrate that the particles would reach their intended destination in humans, and that they can be used to produce therapeutic proteins, he says. “There are lots of details left to be worked out for this to be a viable therapeutic approach, but it is a really terrific and innovative concept, and it certainly gets one’s imagination going,” says Heath, who was not part of the research team. The researchers are now working on particles that can synthesize potential cancer drugs. Some of these proteins are toxic to both cancerous and healthy cells — but using this delivery method, protein production could be turned on only in the tumor, avoiding side effects in healthy cells. The team is also working on new ways to activate the nanoparticles. Possible approaches include production triggered by acidity level or other biological conditions specific to certain body regions or cells.
Hybrid copper-gold nanoparticles convert CO2 by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Copper — the stuff of pennies and tea kettles — is also one of the few metals that can turn carbon dioxide into hydrocarbon fuels with relatively little energy. When fashioned into an electrode and stimulated with voltage, copper acts as a strong catalyst, setting off an electrochemical reaction with carbon dioxide that reduces the greenhouse gas to methane or methanol. Various researchers around the world have studied copper’s potential as an energy-efficient means of recycling carbon dioxide emissions in powerplants: Instead of being released into the atmosphere, carbon dioxide would be circulated through a copper catalyst and turned into methane or methanol — which could then power the rest of the plant by combustion, or be converted to chemical products such as ethylene. Such a system, paired with energy from solar or wind, could vastly reduce greenhouse gas emissions from coal-fired and natural gas-powered plants. But copper is temperamental: easily oxidized, as when an old penny turns green. As a result, the metal is unstable, which can significantly slow its reaction with carbon dioxide and produce unwanted byproducts such as carbon monoxide and formic acid. Now researchers at MIT have come up with a solution that may further reduce the energy needed for copper to convert carbon dioxide, while also making the metal much more stable. The group has engineered tiny nanoparticles of copper mixed with gold, which is resistant to corrosion and oxidation. The researchers observed that just a touch of gold makes copper much more stable. In experiments, they coated electrodes with the hybrid nanoparticles and found that much less energy was needed for these engineered nanoparticles to react with carbon dioxide, compared to nanoparticles of pure copper. A paper detailing the results will appear in the journal Chemical Communications; the research was funded by the National Science Foundation. Co-author Kimberly Hamad-Schifferli of MIT says the findings point to a potentially energy-efficient means of reducing carbon dioxide emissions from powerplants. “You normally have to put a lot of energy into converting carbon dioxide into something useful,” says Hamad-Schifferli, an associate professor of mechanical engineering and biological engineering. “We demonstrated hybrid copper-gold nanoparticles are much more stable, and have the potential to lower the energy you need for the reaction.” Going small The team chose to engineer particles at the nanoscale in order to “get more bang for their buck,” Hamad-Schifferli says: The smaller the particles, the larger the surface area available for interaction with carbon dioxide molecules. “You could have more sites for the CO 2 to come and stick down and get turned into something else,” she says. Hamad-Schifferli worked with Yang Shao-Horn, the Gail E. Kendall Associate Professor of Mechanical Engineering at MIT, postdoc Zhichuan Xu and Erica Lai ’14. The team settled on gold as a suitable metal to combine with copper mainly because of its known properties. (Researchers have previously combined gold and copper at much larger scales, noting that the combination prevented copper from oxidizing.) To make the nanoparticles, Hamad-Schifferli and her colleagues mixed salts containing gold into a solution of copper salts. They heated the solution, creating nanoparticles that fused copper with gold. Xu then put the nanoparticles through a series of reactions, turning the solution into a powder that was used to coat a small electrode. To test the nanoparticles’ reactivity, Xu placed the electrode in a beaker of solution and bubbled carbon dioxide into it. He applied a small voltage to the electrode, and measured the resulting current in the solution. The team reasoned that the resulting current would indicate how efficiently the nanoparticles were reacting with the gas: If CO 2 molecules were reacting with sites on the electrode — and then releasing to allow other CO 2 molecules to react with the same sites — the current would appear as a certain potential was reached, indicating regular “turnover.” If the molecules monopolized sites on the electrode, the reaction would slow down, delaying the appearance of the current at the same potential. The team ultimately found that the potential applied to reach a steady current was much smaller for hybrid copper-gold nanoparticles than for pure copper and gold — an indication that the amount of energy required to run the reaction was much lower than that required when using nanoparticles made of pure copper. Going forward, Hamad-Schifferli says she hopes to look more closely at the structure of the gold-copper nanoparticles to find an optimal configuration for converting carbon dioxide. So far, the team has demonstrated the effectiveness of nanoparticles composed of one-third gold and two-thirds copper, as well as two-thirds gold and one-third copper. Hamad-Schifferli acknowledges that coating industrial-scale electrodes partly with gold can get expensive. However, she says, the energy savings and the reuse potential for such electrodes may balance the initial costs. “It’s a tradeoff,” Hamad-Schifferli says. “Gold is obviously more expensive than copper. But if it helps you get a product that’s more attractive like methane instead of carbon dioxide, and at a lower energy consumption, then it may be worth it. If you could reuse it over and over again, and the durability is higher because of the gold, that’s a check in the plus column.”
New coating for hip implants could prevent premature failure by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Every year, more than a million Americans receive an artificial hip or knee prosthesis. Such implants are designed to last many years, but in about 17 percent of patients who receive a total joint replacement, the implant eventually loosens and has to be replaced early, which can cause dangerous complications for elderly patients. To help minimize these burdensome operations, a team of MIT chemical engineers has developed a new coating for implants that could help them better adhere to the patient’s bone, preventing premature failure. “This would allow the implant to last much longer, to its natural lifetime, with lower risk of failure or infection,” says Paula Hammond, the David H. Koch Professor in Engineering at MIT and senior author of a paper on the work appearing in the journal Advanced Materials. The coating, which induces the body’s own cells to produce bone that fixes the implant in place, could also be used to help heal fractures and to improve dental implants, according to Hammond and lead author Nisarg Shah, a graduate student in Hammond’s lab. An alternative to bone cement Artificial hips consist of a metal ball on a stem, connecting the pelvis and femur. The ball rotates within a plastic cup attached to the inside of the hip socket. Similarly, artificial knees consist of plates and a stem that enable movement of the femur and tibia. To secure the implant, surgeons use bone cement, a polymer that resembles glass when hardened. In some cases, this cement ends up cracking and the implant detaches from the bone, causing chronic pain and loss of mobility for the patient. “Typically, in such a case, the implant is removed and replaced, which causes tremendous secondary tissue loss in the patient that wouldn’t have happened if the implant hadn’t failed,” Shah says. “Our idea is to prevent failure by coating these implants with materials that can induce native bone that is generated within the body. That bone grows into the implant and helps fix it in place.” The new coating consists of a very thin film, ranging from 100 nanometers to one micron, composed of layers of materials that help promote rapid bone growth. One of the materials, hydroxyapatite, is a natural component of bone, made of calcium and phosphate. This material attracts mesenchymal stem cells from the bone marrow and provides an interface for the formation of new bone. The other layer releases a growth factor that stimulates mesenchymal stem cells to transform into bone-producing cells called osteoblasts. Once the osteoblasts form, they start producing new bone to fill in the spaces surrounding the implant, securing it to the existing bone and eliminating the need for bone cement. Having healthy tissue in that space creates a stronger bond and greatly reduces the risk of bacterial infection around the implant. “When bone cement is used, dead space is created between the existing bone and implant stem, where there are no blood vessels. If bacteria colonize this space they would keep proliferating, as the immune system is unable to reach and destroy them. Such a coating would be helpful in preventing that from occurring,” Shah says. It takes at least two or three weeks for the bone to fill in and completely stabilize the implant, but a patient would still be able to walk and do physical therapy during this time, according to the researchers. Tunable control There have been previous efforts to coat orthopedic implants with hydroxyapatite, but the films end up being quite thick and unstable, and tend to break away from the implant, Shah says. Other researchers have experimented with injecting the growth factor or depositing it directly on the implant, but most of it ends up draining away from the implant site, leaving too little behind to have any effect. The MIT team can control the thickness of its film and the amount of growth factor released by using a method called layer-by-layer assembly, in which the desired components are laid down one layer at a time until the desired thickness and drug composition are achieved. “This is a significant advantage because other systems so far have really not been able to control the amount of growth factor that you need. A lot of devices typically must use quantities that may be orders of magnitude more than you need, which can lead to unwanted side effects,” Shah says. Jeremy Gilbert, professor of biomaterials at Syracuse University, says the work is “an elegant approach to engineering surfaces to drive bone healing. It’s a nice combination of polymers, ceramics and growth factors, combined in a way that does look like it has some effects on the stem cell that are growing on it.” Gilbert, who was not involved in the study, added that more research is needed to determine if the coating will have the same effects in living animals. The MIT team is now performing animal studies that have shown promising results: The coatings lead to rapid bone formation, locking the implants in place. This coating could be used not only for joint replacements, but also for fixation plates and screws used to set bone fractures. “It is very versatile. You can apply it to any geometry and have uniform coating all around,” Shah says. Another possible application is in dental implants. Conventionally, implanting an artificial tooth is a two-step process. First, a threaded screw is embedded in the jaw; this screw has to stabilize by integrating with the surrounding bone tissue for several months before the patient returns to the clinic to have the new crown attached to the screw. This could be reduced to a one-step process in which the patient receives the entire implant using a version of these coatings. This research was funded by the National Institutes of Health’s National Institute on Aging and conducted at the David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research with support from the Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies at MIT.
Tang and Dresselhaus 2 by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Graphene, a single-atom-thick layer of carbon, has spawned much research into its unique electronic, optical and mechanical properties. Now, researchers at MIT have found another compound that shares many of graphene’s unusual characteristics — and in some cases has interesting complementary properties to this much-heralded material. The material, a thin film of bismuth-antimony, can have a variety of different controllable characteristics, the researchers found, depending on the ambient temperature and pressure, the material’s thickness and the orientation of its growth. The research, carried out by materials science and engineering PhD candidate Shuang Tang and Institute Professor Mildred Dresselhaus, appears in the journal Nano Letters . Like graphene, the new material has electronic properties that are known as two-dimensional Dirac cones, a term that refers to the cone-shaped graph plotting energy versus momentum for electrons moving through the material. These unusual properties — which allow electrons to move in a different way than is possible in most materials — may give the bismuth-antimony films properties that are highly desirable for applications in manufacturing next-generation electronic chips or thermoelectric generators and coolers. In such materials, Tang says, electrons “can travel like a beam of light,” potentially making possible new chips with much faster computational abilities. The electron flow might in some cases be hundreds of times faster than in conventional silicon chips, he says. Similarly, in a thermoelectric application — where a temperature difference between two sides of a device creates a flow of electrical current — the much faster movement of electrons, coupled with strong thermal insulating properties, could enable much more efficient power production. This might prove useful in powering satellites by exploiting the temperature difference between their sunlit and shady sides, Tang says. Such applications remain speculative at this point, Dresselhaus says, because further research is needed to analyze additional properties and eventually to test samples of the material. This initial analysis was based mostly on theoretical modeling of the bismuth-antimony film’s properties. Until this analysis was carried out, Dresselhaus says, “we never thought of bismuth” as having the potential for Dirac cone properties. But recent unexpected findings involving a class of materials called topological insulators suggested otherwise: Experiments carried out by a Ukrainian collaborator suggested that Dirac cone properties might be possible in bismuth-antimony films. While it turns out that the thin films of bismuth-antimony can have some properties similar to those of graphene, changing the conditions also allows a variety of other properties to be realized. That opens up the possibility of designing electronic devices made of the same material with varying properties, deposited one layer atop another, rather than layers of different materials. The material’s unusual properties can vary from one direction to another: Electrons moving in one direction might follow the laws of classical mechanics, for example, while those moving in a perpendicular direction obey relativistic physics. This could enable devices to test relativistic physics in a cheaper and simpler way than existing systems, Tang says, although this remains to be shown through experiments. “Nobody’s made any devices yet” from the new material, Dresselhaus cautions, but adds that the principles are clear and the necessary analysis should take less than a year to carry out. “Anything can happen, we really don’t know,” Dresselhaus says. Such details remain to be ironed out, she says, adding: “Many mysteries remain before we have a real device.” Joseph Heremans, a professor of physics at Ohio State University who was not involved in this research, says that while some unusual properties of bismuth have been known for a long time, “what is surprising is the richness of the system calculated by Tang and Dresselhaus. The beauty of this prediction is further enhanced by the fact that system is experimentally quite accessible.” Heremans adds that in further research on the properties of the bismuth-antimony material, “there will be difficulties, and a few are already known,” but he says the properties are sufficiently interesting and promising that “this paper should stimulate a large experimental effort.” The work was funded by a grant from the U.S. Air Force Office of Scientific Research.
Comparing apples and oranges by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Every year, U.S. supermarkets lose roughly 10 percent of their fruits and vegetables to spoilage, according to the Department of Agriculture. To help combat those losses, MIT chemistry professor Timothy Swager and his students have built a new sensor that could help grocers and food distributors better monitor their produce. The new sensors, described in the journal Angewandte Chemie , can detect tiny amounts of ethylene, a gas that promotes ripening in plants. Swager envisions the inexpensive sensors attached to cardboard boxes of produce and scanned with a handheld device that would reveal the contents’ ripeness. That way, grocers would know when to put certain items on sale to move them before they get too ripe. “If we can create equipment that will help grocery stores manage things more precisely, and maybe lower their losses by 30 percent, that would be huge,” says Swager, the John D. MacArthur Professor of Chemistry. Detecting gases to monitor the food supply is a new area of interest for Swager, whose previous research has focused on sensors to detect explosives or chemical and biological warfare agents. “Food is something that is really important to create sensors around, and we’re going after food in a broad sense,” Swager says. He is also pursuing monitors that could detect when food becomes moldy or develops bacterial growth, but as his first target, he chose ethylene, a plant hormone that controls ripening. Plants secrete varying amounts of ethylene throughout their maturation process. For example, bananas will stay green until they release enough ethylene to start the ripening process. Once ripening begins, more ethylene is produced, and the ripening accelerates. If that perfect yellow banana is not eaten at peak ripeness, ethylene will turn it brown and mushy. Fruit distributors try to slow this process by keeping ethylene levels very low in their warehouses. Such warehouses employ monitors that use gas chromatography or mass spectroscopy, which can separate gases and analyze their composition. Those systems cost around $1,200 each. “Right now, the only time people monitor ethylene is in these huge facilities, because the equipment’s very expensive,” Swager says. Detecting ripeness Funded by the U.S. Army Office of Research through MIT’s Institute for Soldier Nanotechnologies, the MIT team built a sensor consisting of an array of tens of thousands of carbon nanotubes: sheets of carbon atoms rolled into cylinders that act as “superhighways” for electron flow. To modify the tubes to detect ethylene gas, the researchers added copper atoms, which serve as “speed bumps” to slow the flowing electrons. “Anytime you put something on these nanotubes, you’re making speed bumps, because you’re taking this perfect, pristine system and you’re putting something on it,” Swager says. Copper atoms slow the electrons a little bit, but when ethylene is present, it binds to the copper atoms and slows the electrons even more. By measuring how much the electrons slow down — a property also known as resistance — the researchers can determine how much ethylene is present. To make the device even more sensitive, the researchers added tiny beads of polystyrene, which absorbs ethylene and concentrates it near the carbon nanotubes. With their latest version, the researchers can detect concentrations of ethylene as low as 0.5 parts per million. The concentration required for fruit ripening is usually between 0.1 and one part per million.  The researchers tested their sensors on several types of fruit — banana, avocado, apple, pear and orange — and were able to accurately measure their ripeness by detecting how much ethylene the fruits secreted. Lead author of the paper describing the sensors is Birgit Esser, a postdoc in Swager’s lab. Grad student Jan Schnorr is also an author of the paper. John Saffell, the technical director at Alphasense, a company that develops sensors, describes the MIT team’s approach as rigorous and focused. “This sensor, if designed and implemented correctly, could significantly reduce the level of fruit spoilage during shipping,” he says. “At any given time, there are thousands of cargo containers on the seas, transporting fruit and hoping that they arrive at their destination with the correct degree of ripeness,” adds Saffell, who was not involved in this research. “Expensive analytical systems can monitor ethylene generation, but in the cost-sensitive shipping business, they are not economically viable for most of shipped fruit.” Swager has filed for a patent on the technology and hopes to start a company to commercialize the sensors. In future work, he plans to add a radio-frequency identification (RFID) chip to the sensor so it can communicate wirelessly with a handheld device that would display ethylene levels. The system would be extremely cheap — about 25 cents for the carbon nanotube sensor plus another 75 cents for the RFID chip, Swager estimates. “This could be done with absolutely dirt-cheap electronics, with almost no power,” he says.
On the attack by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Over the past several decades, scientists have faced challenges in developing new antibiotics even as bacteria have become increasingly resistant to existing drugs. One strategy that might combat such resistance would be to overwhelm bacterial defenses by using highly targeted nanoparticles to deliver large doses of existing antibiotics. In a step toward that goal, researchers at MIT and Brigham and Women’s Hospital have developed a nanoparticle designed to evade the immune system and home in on infection sites, then unleash a focused antibiotic attack. This approach would mitigate the side effects of some antibiotics and protect the beneficial bacteria that normally live inside our bodies, says Aleks Radovic-Moreno, an MIT graduate student and lead author of a paper describing the particles in the journal ACS Nano. Institute Professor Robert Langer of MIT and Omid Farokzhad, director of the Laboratory of Nanomedicine and Biomaterials at Brigham and Women’s Hospital, are senior authors of the paper. Timothy Lu, an assistant professor of electrical engineering and computer science, and MIT undergraduates Vlad Puscasu and Christopher Yoon also contributed to the research. Rules of attraction The team created the new nanoparticles from a polymer capped with polyethylene glycol (PEG), which is commonly used for drug delivery because it is nontoxic and can help nanoparticles travel through the bloodstream by evading detection by the immune system. Their next step was to induce the particles to specifically target bacteria. Researchers have previously tried to target particles to bacteria by giving them a positive charge, which attracts them to bacteria’s negatively charged cell walls. However, the immune system tends to clear positively charged nanoparticles from the body before they can encounter bacteria. To overcome this, the researchers designed antibiotic-carrying nanoparticles that can switch their charge depending on their environment. While they circulate in the bloodstream, the particles have a slight negative charge. However, when they encounter an infection site, the particles gain a positive charge, allowing them to tightly bind to bacteria and release their drug payload. This switch is provoked by the slightly acidic environment surrounding bacteria. Infection sites can be slightly more acidic than normal body tissue if disease-causing bacteria are reproducing rapidly, depleting oxygen. Lack of oxygen triggers a change in bacterial metabolism, leading them to produce organic acids. The body’s immune cells also contribute: Cells called neutrophils produce acids as they try to consume the bacteria. Just below the outer PEG layer, the nanoparticles contain a pH-sensitive layer made of long chains of the amino acid histidine. As pH drops from 7 to 6 — representing an increase in acidity — the polyhistidine molecule tends to gain protons, giving the molecule a positive charge. Overwhelming force Once the nanoparticles bind to bacteria, they begin releasing their drug payload, which is embedded in the core of the particle. In this study, the researchers designed the particles to deliver vancomycin, used to treat drug-resistant infections, but the particles could be modified to deliver other antibiotics or combinations of drugs. Many antibiotics lose their effectiveness as acidity increases, but the researchers found that antibiotics carried by nanoparticles retained their potency better than traditional antibiotics in an acidic environment. The current version of the nanoparticles releases its drug payload over one to two days. “You don’t want just a short burst of drug, because bacteria can recover once the drug is gone. You want an extended release of drug so that bacteria are constantly being hit with high quantities of drug until they’ve been eradicated,” Radovic-Moreno says. Young Jik Kwon, associate professor of chemical engineering and materials science at the University of California at Irvine, says the new nanoparticles are well designed and could have great potential impact in treating infectious diseases, particularly in developing countries. “Most nanotechnology has been targeted to cancer drug delivery or imaging; not many people have shown interest in using a nanotechnology approach for infectious disease,” says Kwon, who was not part of the research team. Although further development is needed, the researchers hope the high doses delivered by their particles could eventually help overcome bacterial resistance. “When bacteria are drug resistant, it doesn’t mean they stop responding, it means they respond but only at higher concentrations. And the reason you can’t achieve these clinically is because antibiotics are sometimes toxic, or they don’t stay at that site of infection long enough,” Radovic-Moreno says. One possible challenge: There are also negatively charged tissue cells and proteins at infection sites that can compete with bacteria in binding to nanoparticles and potentially block them from binding to bacteria. The researchers are studying how much this might limit the effectiveness of their nanoparticle delivery. They are also conducting studies in animals to determine whether the particles will remain pH-sensitive in the body and circulate for long enough to reach their targets.
Gradečak wins Nano Letters young investigator award by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Silvija Gradečak, the Thomas Lord Assistant Professor in Materials Science and Engineering, has been named the 2012 recipient of the Nano Letters Young Investigator Lectureship . This award, awarded this year for the first time, recognizes the contributions of a young investigator who has made major impacts on the field of nanoscience and nanotechnology. Gradečak's research focuses on nanophotonics and electronics and is based on the synthesis, characterization and integration of low-dimensional systems. By taking the advantage of unique material properties on a nanoscale, she explores novel optoelectronic applications such as nanoscale light-emitting sources, single photon sources, or nanowire lasers. Gradečak will give the invited lectureship talk at the 244th ACS National Meeting and Exposition in Philadelphia, Pa., in the ACS Division of Colloid and Surface Chemistry technical program.
In search of new ways of producing nano-materials by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
A life in academia was a natural career path for Jing Kong, the daughter of two Chinese academics at Tianjin Finance and Economics University: Her father taught and was editor of a journal, and her mother was in the university’s foreign trade department and later worked with graduate students. <br /><br />Last year, after seven years at MIT, Kong was granted tenure as the ITT Career Development Associate Professor of Electrical Engineering.<br /><br />Her interest in science and technology started, as it does for many people, with an inspiring teacher. “I had many very good teachers,” Kong recalls, but there was “one in particular, a teacher of physics in middle school , Baoyi Liu. He gave me a lot of encouragement, and helped me to be interested” in the subject.<br /><br />While in high school, “I took part in math, physics and chemistry competitions. I was chosen for the preparation class for a chemistry Olympics,” Kong says. Although she didn’t end up being chosen for the team, her year of preparation for the event at a Beijing high school entitled her to admission to one of China’s top universities. She chose Beijing University because of its close proximity to her hometown.<br /><br />Kong studied English during her undergraduate years, encouraged by many of her classmates who were planning to go abroad to finish their studies. After graduating in 1997, she decided to attend Stanford University for graduate studies — because, she says, its acceptance letter was first to arrive. <br /><br />At Stanford, Kong began studying carbon nanotubes, microscopic cylinders formed by single-atom-thick sheets of carbon, which were by then a hot research area. She credits her “very talented” thesis advisor, Hongjie Dai, for the fact that her research in that field, which focused on finding better ways of synthesizing the material, was “very fruitful, and produced quite a lot of publications.”<br /><br />Working with several other graduate students, Kong found what turned out to be a very effective way of improving the production of nanotubes and controlling their growth, which made it much easier to produce electronic devices from them. “It turned out to be very useful,” she says, and the team shared the technique with many other research groups.<br /><br />While she enjoyed her work at Stanford, Kong eventually felt burned out and a bit lost, and began questioning the meaning of her efforts — so she joined a campus evangelical fellowship. At first, she says, “I was very much resistant to that idea that there is a God, but my perception changed after a seminar and discussion there.” By the time she graduated, she recalls, she had become a Christian; ever since, she says, her faith has played “a critical role in my life.”<br /><br />Kong’s first job after earning her doctorate was as a researcher at NASA’s Ames Research Center, near the Stanford campus. (Her husband, He Dong, an electrical engineer whom she had met at Beijing University and then married while pursuing her doctorate, already had a job in the Bay Area.) But she found pure research unsatisfying, and longed to return to an academic environment where she could work with students and spend her life in a more meaningful way, sharing her religious faith with others. She received an offer from MIT, and after a brief stint as a postdoc at Delft University in the Netherlands, she started work at the Institute in 2004. She and her husband are now raising two daughters.<br /><br />Kong’s research at MIT has continued to focus on carbon nanomaterials, including nanotubes and graphene sheets. She has pioneered a new method of producing large sheets of graphene — previously available only in tiny flakes — and is continuing to work on improving the method. “I want to improve the quality of the material we make, and share the methods with colleagues,” she says.<br /><br />With carbon nanotubes, she has focused on developing ways to use the tiny structures as extremely sensitive chemical detectors for toxic gases, and ways of integrating them into new kinds of electronic devices.<br /><br />Kong is emphatic about what is most important to her. “The research is only a platform for me to do God’s work,” she says. “His creation, the way he made this world, is very interesting. It’s amazing, really.”
From lemons to lemonade: Using carbon dioxide to make carbon nitride by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
(Michigan Technological University) Michigan Tech scientist Yun Han Hu has discovered a chemical reaction that not only eats up the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide, it creates some useful compounds to boot.
Computers & Graphics incorporates Collage Authoring Environment by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
(Elsevier) Elsevier's Computers & Graphics announces the upcoming publication of a special issue on 3D Object Retrieval which will incorporate the Collage Authoring Environment, a workflow and publication platform developed by the first place winner of the 2011 Executable Paper Grand Challenge. The call for submissions for the special issue was announced at Eurographics 2012 on May 13, during the 3DOR Workshop.
Purdue professor to speak before Congress about nanotechnology in brain treatment research by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
(Purdue University) Researchers at Purdue University are working with the US Army and neurosurgeons at the Walter Reed National Military Medical Center to create a new type of "bioactive" coating for stents used to treat brain aneurisms including those caused by head trauma from bomb blasts.
UCLA researchers develop way to strengthen proteins with polymers by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
(University of California - Los Angeles) In a new study published in the Journal of the American Society of Chemistry, investigators from the UCLA Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and the California NanoSystems Institute at UCLA describe how they synthesized polymers to attach to proteins in order to stabilize them during shipping, storage and other activities. The study findings suggest that these polymers could be useful in stabilizing protein formulations.
How ion bombardment reshapes metal surfaces by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
(Brown University) Ion bombardment of metal surfaces is an important, but poorly understood, nanomanufacturing technique. New research using sophisticated supercomputer simulations has shown what goes on in trillionths of a second. The advance could lead to better ways to predict the phenomenon and more uses of the technique to make new nanoscale products.
Making microscopic machines using metallic glass by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
(Elsevier) Researchers in Ireland have developed a new technology using materials called bulk metallic glasses to produce high-precision molds for making tiny plastic components. The components, with detailed microscopically patterned surfaces could be used in the next generation of computer memory devices and microscale testing kits and chemical reactors.
A milestone in nanoparticle research: Nanoparticle test handbook sets the standards by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
(Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (EMPA)) A new handbook has been published under Empa leadership which aims to unify European standards in nanoparticle research. It contains detailed regulations for the manufacture and analysis of specific nanoparticles in the laboratory environment, placing research work in this field on a unified foundation and enabling valid comparisons to be made between studies. The editor, Prof. Harald Krug, is head of Empa's Materials meet Life Department.
Study shows availability of hydrogen controls chemical structure of graphene oxide by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
(Georgia Institute of Technology Research News) A new study shows that the availability of hydrogen plays a significant role in determining the chemical and structural makeup of graphene oxide, a material that has potential uses in nano-electronics, nano-electromechanical systems, sensing, composites, optics, catalysis and energy storage.
Sequence it…and they will come! by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
(Arizona State University) Rapid DNA sequencing may soon become a routine part of each individual's medical record, providing enormous information previously sequestered in the human genome's 3 billion nucleotide bases. This week's Newsfocus section of the journal Science describes recent advances in sequencing technology using a tiny orifice known as a nanopore.
New study shows how nanotechnology can help detect disease earlier by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
(University of Kentucky) A new study led by University of Kentucky researchers shows a new way to precisely detect a single chemical at extremely low concentrations and high contamination.
Taking solar technology up a notch by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
(Northwestern University) The limitations of conventional and current solar cells include high production cost, low operating efficiency and durability, and many cells rely on toxic and scarce materials. Northwestern University researchers have developed a solar cell that, in principle, will minimize these limitations. In particular, the new solid-state solar cell is the first to solve the problem of the promising but leaky Grätzel cell. The device -- whose electrolyte starts as a liquid but ends up a solid mass -- is inherently stable.
A new imaging system produces 3-D models of monuments using unmanned aircraft by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
(University of Granada) This system produces a realistic reproduction of architectural models at a low cost.
Forensics ferret out fire beetle secret by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
(University of Bonn) Black fire beetles of the genus Melanophila possess unusual infrared sensors. Researchers from the University of Bonn and from the Forschungszentrum Jülich have concluded that the beetles' sensors might even be more sensitive that uncooled infrared sensors designed by humans. Having this natural model opens up new perspectives, such as for early warning systems for forest fires. The results have been published in PLoS ONE.
Sensing the infrared: Researchers improve IR detectors with single-walled carbon nanotubes by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
(Optical Society of America) Whether used in telescopes or optoelectronic communications, infrared detectors must be continuously cooled to avoid being overwhelmed by stray thermal radiation. Now, a team of researchers from Peking University, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, and Duke University is harnessing the remarkable properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes to create highly sensitive, "uncooled" photovoltaic infrared detectors.
Thousands of invisibility cloaks trap a rainbow by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
(Institute of Physics) Many people anticipating the creation of an invisibility cloak might be surprised to learn that a group of American researchers has created 25,000 individual cloaks.
First direct observation of oriented attachment in nanocrystal growth by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
(DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) Berkeley Lab researchers have reported the first direct observation of nanoparticles undergoing oriented attachment, the critical step in biomineralization and the growth of nanocrystals. A better understanding of oriented attachment in nanoparticles is a key to synthesizing new materials with remarkable structural properties.
Nanoparticles seen as artificial atoms by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
(DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) Observing the formation of nanorods in real-time, Berkeley Lab researchers found that nanoparticles become attached to form winding chains that eventually align, attach end-to-end, straighten and stretch into elongated nanowires. This supports the theory of nanoparticles acting like artificial atoms during crystal growth and points the way to future energy devices.
Discarded data may hold the key to a sharper view of molecules by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
(Oregon State University) There's nothing like a new pair of eyeglasses to bring fine details into sharp relief. For scientists who study the large molecules of life from proteins to DNA, the equivalent of new lenses have come in the form of an advanced method for analyzing data from X-ray crystallography experiments.
EPSRC announces first recipients of Fellowships in Manufacturing by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
(Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council) The Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council has today announced its first ever Fellowships in Manufacturing, worth around £1 million each.
Food, water safety provide new challenges for today's sensors by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
(DOE/Oak Ridge National Laboratory) Sensors that work flawlessly in laboratory settings may stumble when it comes to performing in real-world conditions, according to researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory.
Exotic particles, chilled and trapped, form giant matter wave by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
(University of California - San Diego) Physicists have trapped and cooled exotic particles called excitons so effectively that they condensed and cohered to form a giant matter wave, a signature of a state called a Bose-Einstein condensate. A first for subatomic particles, rather than whole atoms, the feat will facilitate study of the physical properties of excitons, which exist only fleetingly yet offer promising applications as diverse as efficient solar energy and ultrafast computing.
Florida Researchers See Record Efficiency for Graphene in Solar Cells by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 12:13
University of Florida nanoresearchers report unprecedented power conversion efficiency with a new graphene-based solar cell. <br><br> Prior attempts at using graphene’s single-atom-thick honeycomb lattice in solar cells have shown power conversion efficiencies up to 2.9 percent. The UF team more than tripled those levels, with a record-breaking 8.6 percent efficiency. They achieved these results by chemically treating, or doping, graphene with trifluoromethanesulfonyl-amide, or TFSA. <br><br> The results are published in the current online edition of Nano Letters.
'Metamaterials,' quantum dots show promise for new technologies by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
(Purdue University) Researchers are edging toward the creation of new optical technologies using "nanostructured metamaterials" capable of ultra-efficient transmission of light, with potential applications including advanced solar cells and quantum computing.
A nanoclutch for nanobots by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
(American Institute of Physics) Chinese researchers have designed and tested simulations of a "nanoclutch," a speed regulation tool for nanomotors.
'Unzipped' carbon nanotubes could help energize fuel cells and batteries, Stanford scientists say by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
(Stanford University) Multi-walled carbon nanotubes riddled with defects and impurities on the outside could replace some of the expensive platinum catalysts used in fuel cells and metal-air batteries, according to scientists at Stanford University. Their findings are published in the May 27 online edition of the journal Nature Nanotechnology.
Nano-scale Materials Characterisation by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Course: 7 Jul 2012 - 8 Jul 2012, United Kingdom. Organized by University of Oxford Begbroke Science Park and Department for Continuing Education.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/681t8I8f4Zg" height="1" width="1" />
Online Postgraduate Certificate in Nanotechnology, University of Oxford by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Course: 7 Oct 2012 - 10 Jul 2013, Online/Oxford, United Kingdom. Organized by University of Oxford.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/Axav6VQEtj4" height="1" width="1" />
Oxford Nanotechnology Summer School 2012 by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Course: 2 Jul 2012 - 6 Jul 2012, Oxford, United Kingdom. Organized by University of Oxford Begbroke Science Park and Department for Continuing Education.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/jt2_lJInWB8" height="1" width="1" />
AFM in Single Cell Adhesion and Mechanics by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
School: 20 Jun 2012, Berlin, Berlin, Germany. Organized by JPK Instruments AG.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/qzFKIbOzqvk" height="1" width="1" />
Basics of Testing Associated with Sterilization Validation and Routine Processing by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Conference: 1 Mar 2012, Palo Alto, Ca, United States. Organized by ComplianceOnline.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/lRpivuGVO3Y" height="1" width="1" />
Fifth Annual Nanotechnology and Nanomedicine Symposium by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Conference: 21 Sep 2012 - 22 Sep 2012, Louisville, Kentucky, United States.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/CkviTFbneC0" height="1" width="1" />
IEEE Nano 2012: 12th International Conference on Nanotechnology by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Conference: 20 Aug 2012 - 23 Aug 2012, Birmingham, United Kingdom.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/HvB4oqeZl54" height="1" width="1" />
Drop Reaction and Microfluidic Analysis (DRAMA) by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:35
Conference: 11 Sep 2012 - 13 Sep 2012, Royal Dublin Society, Dublin, Ireland.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/Pbgnh77M9dw" height="1" width="1" />
Kuala Lumpur Vascular Access Conference 2012 by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:34
Conference: 4 Oct 2012 - 6 Oct 2012, Kuala Lumpur, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Organized by Vascular Society of Malaysia.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/xFFZhvmX2bc" height="1" width="1" />
Irsee 2013 - Trends in Nanoscience by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:34
Conference: 24 Feb 2013 - 28 Feb 2013, Irsee, Bavaria, Germany. Organized by Collaborative Research Center 767 Controlled Nanosystems: Interaction and Interfacing to the Macroscale University of Konstanz, Competence Network Functional Nanostructur.<img src="http://feeds.feedburner.com/~r/NanotechwebEvents/~4/hYr4IS-xJow" height="1" width="1" />
SRC Research Paves Way for 14 nm Circuits Using Directed Self Assembly by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:34
By Gary Thomas Directed Self Assembly technique that was previously used only in laboratories for test circuit structures has been successfully extended to real circuits of 22 nm by researchers at the...
Tanner EDA Adds Analog FastSPICE with Nanometer SPICE Accuracy to its Design Suite by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:34
By Cameron Chai Tanner EDA’s full-flow HiPer Silicon design suite is now offered along with Berkley Design Inc.’s Analog FastSPICE platform. The HiPer silicon suite offers software solutions for...
Researchers Find Forces Behind Oriented Attachment in Nanocrystal Growth by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:34
By Will Soutter A research team led by Jim DeYoreo from the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) of the US Department of Energy has for the first time directly observed the forces...
Researchers Develop New Nanostructured Metamaterial by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:34
By Will Soutter A multi-institute research team has developed a novel nanostructured metamaterial that can transmit light more efficiently, taking one step closer to the realization of novel optical...
New Doping Technique Drastically Improves Graphene Solar Cell Efficiency by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:34
By Will Soutter A research team from the University of Florida (UF) has fabricated a graphene solar cell that demonstrates a power conversion efficiency of 8.6%, a record value, when considering...
Non-Degradable Nanomaterials Pose Unknown Danger by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:34
By Will Soutter Nanoproducts will eventually need to be degradable as nanoparticles don’t seem to disappear. ETH-Zurich researchers belonging to environmental engineering and chemistry fields...
Scientists Unravel Atomic-Level Anatomy of Olympicene Molecule by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:34
By Gary Thomas Scientists at IBM have imaged a single 1.2 nm-wide olympicene molecule using advanced noncontact atomic force microscopy technique. The researchers claim the image to be the smallest...
Researchers Develop New Technique to Cut Graphene with Accurate Control by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:34
By Will Soutter Professor XI Ning from the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering at the Michigan State University and Professor LIU Lianqing at the Shenyang Institute of Automation Chinese...
TSMC and Renesas Extend MCU Partnership to 40 nm eFlash Process Technology by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:34
By Will Soutter TSMC and Renesas Electronics have extended their partnership on microcontroller (MCU) technology to 40 nm embedded flash (eFlash) process technology to produce MCU products for...
TNT 2012 Will Be Sponsored by European Physical Society by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:34
The 13th edition of the Trends in Nanotechnology International Conference (TNT 2012) to be held from the 10th until the 14th of September 2012 will be sponsored by the European Physical Society (EPS)....
New measuring techniques can improve efficiency, safety of nanoparticles by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
Using high-precision microscopy and X-ray scattering techniques, University of Oregon researchers have gained eye-opening insights into the process of applying green chemistry to nanotechnology that results in high yields, improves efficiency and dramatically reduces waste and potential negative exposure to human health or the environment.
Researchers demonstrate the performance of a new nanoprinting technique by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
Positioning nanotubes in a controlled manner to create red or green pedestrian pictograms, depending on the orientation.
10 years of nanotechnology risk research - a European status update by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
A group of experts from the chemical industry and various research laboratories in Germany have published a report on the current status of risk research on nanotechnology materials and applications. The report - 10 Years of Research: Risk Assessment, Human and Environmental Toxicology of Nanomaterials - provides an overview of the current state of risk assessment and toxicological research into nanomaterials. It also lists and summarizes the national and European projects on toxicology on various nanomaterials. In their report, the working group "Responsible Production and Use of Nanomaterials" has drawn up a list of topics and priorities which need to be addressed; activities and projects which have already been carried out; are currently on-going; or are still at the planning stage. The main focus of our considerations is on Germany, with a wider outlook on papers and results at European level.
Gruenen erkundigen sich nach Umgang mit Ergebnissen der NanoKommission by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
Der Umgang der Bundesregierung mit den Ergebnissen und Empfehlungen der NanoKommission stehen im Mittelpunkt einer Kleinen Anfrage der Fraktion Buendnis 90/Die Gruenen. Die Fraktion kritisiert, dass die Bundesregierung im Januar 2011 - einen Monat vor der NanoKommission - einen Aktionsplan zur Nanotechnologie vorgelegt hat, in dem die NanoKommission nur an einer einzigen Stelle erwaehnt wird.
IBM Research gets close to implementation of a practical quantum computer (w/video) by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
Scientists at IBM Research have achieved major advances in quantum computing device performance that may accelerate the realization of a practical, full-scale quantum computer.
Amazing nano rockets in five easy steps (w/video) by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
Jet engined nano size rockets, which contain a cargo may be a solution for several delivery jobs in the human body. And no, this is not science fiction, it is science.
An electrical switch for magnetic current by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
A multiferroic tunnel junction provides storage media with increased data density.
Conference on the state of knowledge about the health risks of nanosilver by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
From 8 to 9 February 2012, experts from Europe and the USA exchanged knowledge at the "Conference on Nanosilver" organised by the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment. Apart from toxicological aspects, the discussions covered the possible development of silver resistances in pathogenic germs as well as analytical procedures for the detection of nanosilver in various matrices such as foods, sprays and consumer products and its release from such matrices.
Nanotechnology fiber breakthrough holds promise for medicine and microprocessors by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
A new method for creating nanofibers made of proteins, developed by researchers at Polytechnic Institute of New York University (NYU-Poly), promises to greatly improve drug delivery methods for the treatment of cancers, heart disorders and Alzheimer's disease, as well as aid in the regeneration of human tissue, bone and cartilage.
Highly Advanced Transmission Electron Microscope from FEI Inaugurated at the Ernst Ruska-Centre in Germany by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
The Ernst Ruska-Centre has reached a record resolution of 50 picometers, which allows scientists to resolve atomic structures to unprecedented levels.
New Broadband Visible Light Source Produces Balanced Output by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
BluLoop Light Source from Ocean Optics is ideal for color applications.
Exotic material boosts electromagnetism safely by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
Using exotic man-made materials, scientists from Duke University and Boston College believe they can greatly enhance the forces of electromagnetism, one of the four fundamental forces of nature, without harming living beings or damaging electrical equipment.
Intel, Micron Update NAND Flash Memory Joint Venture by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
The agreements, which are designed to improve the flexibility and efficiency of the joint venture, include a NAND Flash supply agreement for Micron to supply NAND products to Intel and agreements for certain joint venture assets to be sold to Micron.
Carbon Nanotubes Deliver Drugs to Cancer Cells by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:36
Carbon nanotubes could be used to safely deliver anti-cancer medicines or modified DNA molecules for gene therapy. A research team led by Dr Sofia Pascu at the University of Bath has shown how carbon nanotubes could be used as a 'cargo carrier' to break through the outer membranes of cells that some useful therapeutic molecules would otherwise be unable to enter.
Gold-Nanoantennen helfen einzelne Proteine zu beobachten by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
Neue Methode zur Beobachtung von Protein-Molekuelen mit Nanopartikeln aus Gold vorgestellt.
MIT Explores Ways To Customize Purpose-Driven Nanowires by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 12:22
MIT researchers have found a way of precisely controlling the width and composition of nanowires, making it possible to customize nanowires for particular applications. Nanowires can have very different properties based on the quantum behaviors of electrons and phonons within the material, and this in turn affects how nanowires conduct electricity and heat or interacts with light, according to MIT assistant professor of materials science and engineering Silvija Gradečak. <br><br> The MIT team controlled the size and composition of nanowires as they grew by adjusting the amount of gases used in growing the nanowires. The researchers carried out their nanowire-growth experiments with indium nitride and indium gallium nitride, but the same technique could be applied to a variety of different materials, according to the team.
Making droplets drop faster by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
The condensation of water is crucial to the operation of most of the powerplants that provide our electricity — whether they are fueled by coal, natural gas or nuclear fuel. It is also the key to producing potable water from salty or brackish water. But there are still large gaps in the scientific understanding of exactly how water condenses on the surfaces used to turn steam back into water in a powerplant, or to condense water in an evaporation-based desalination plant. New research by a team at MIT offers important new insights into how these droplets form, and ways to pattern the collecting surfaces at the nanoscale to encourage droplets to form more rapidly. These insights could enable a new generation of significantly more efficient powerplants and desalination plants, the researchers say. The new results were published online this month in the journal ACS Nano, a publication of the American Chemical Society, in a paper by MIT mechanical engineering graduate student Nenad Miljkovic, postdoc Ryan Enright and associate professor Evelyn Wang. Although analysis of condensation mechanisms is an old field, Miljkovic says, it has re-emerged in recent years with the rise of micro- and nanopatterning technologies that shape condensing surfaces to an unprecedented degree. The key property of surfaces that influences droplet-forming behavior is known as “wettability,” which determines whether droplets stand high on a surface like water drops on a hot griddle, or spread out quickly to form a thin film. It’s a question that’s key to the operation of powerplants, where water is boiled using fossil fuel or the heat of nuclear fission; the resulting steam drives a turbine attached to a dynamo, producing electricity. After exiting the turbine, the steam needs to cool and condense back into liquid water, so it can return to the boiler and begin the process again. (That’s what goes on inside the giant cooling towers seen at powerplants.) Typically, on a condensing surface, droplets gradually grow larger while adhering to the material through surface tension. Once they get so big that gravity overcomes the surface tension holding them in place, they rain down into a container below. But it turns out there are ways to get them to fall from the surface — and even to “jump” from the surface — at much smaller sizes, long before gravity takes over. That reduces the size of the removed droplets and makes the resulting transfer of heat much more efficient, Miljkovic says. One mechanism is a surface pattern that encourages adjacent droplets to merge together. As they do so, energy is released, which “causes a recoil from the surface, and droplets will actually jump off,” Miljkovic says. That mechanism has been observed before, he notes, but the new work “adds a new chapter to the story. Few researchers have looked at the growth of the droplets prior to the jumping in detail.” That’s important because even if the jumping effect allows droplets to leave the surface faster than they would otherwise, if their growth lags, you might actually reduce efficiency. In other words, it’s not just the size of the droplet when it gets released that matters, but also how fast it grows to that size. “This has not been identified before,” Miljkovic says. And in many cases, the team found, “you think you’re getting enhanced heat transfer, but you’re actually getting worse heat transfer.” In previous research, “heat transfer has not been explicitly measured,” he says, because it’s difficult to measure and the field of condensation with surface patterning is still fairly young. By incorporating measurements of droplet growth rates and heat transfer into their computer models, the MIT team was able to compare a variety of approaches to the surface patterning and find those that actually provided the most efficient transfer of heat. One approach has been to create a forest of tiny pillars on the surface: Droplets tend to sit on top of the pillars while only locally wetting the surface rather than wetting the whole surface, minimizing the area of contact and facilitating easier release. But the exact sizes, spacing, width-to-height ratios and nanoscale roughness of the pillars can make a big difference in how well they work, the team found. “We showed that our surfaces improved heat transfer up to 71 percent [compared to flat, non-wetting surfaces currently used only in high-efficiency condenser systems] if you tailor them properly,” Miljkovic says. With more work to explore variations in surface patterns, it should be possible to improve even further, he says. The enhanced efficiency could also improve the rate of water production in plants that produce drinking water from seawater, or even in proposed new solar-power systems that rely on maximizing evaporator (solar collector) surface area and minimizing condenser (heat exchanger) surface area to increase the overall efficiency of solar-energy collection. A similar system could improve heat removal in computer chips, which is often based on internal evaporation and recondensation of a heat-transfer liquid through a device called a heat pipe. Chuan-Hua Chen, an assistant professor of mechanical engineering and materials science at Duke University who was not involved in this work, says, “It is intriguing to see the coexistence of both sphere- and balloon-shaped condensate drops on the same structure. … Very little is known at the scales resolved by the environmental electron microscope used in this paper. Such findings will likely influence future research on anti-dew materials and … condensers.” The next step in the research, underway now, is to extend the findings from the droplet experiments and computer modeling — and to find even more efficient configurations and ways of manufacturing them rapidly and inexpensively on an industrial scale, Miljkovic says. This work was supported as part of the MIT S3TEC Center, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the U.S. Department of Energy.
Delivering RNA with tiny sponge-like spheres by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
For the past decade, scientists have been pursuing cancer treatments based on RNA interference — a phenomenon that offers a way to shut off malfunctioning genes with short snippets of RNA. However, one huge challenge remains: finding a way to efficiently deliver the RNA. Most of the time, short interfering RNA (siRNA) — the type used for RNA interference — is quickly broken down inside the body by enzymes that defend against infection by RNA viruses. “It’s been a real struggle to try to design a delivery system that allows us to administer siRNA, especially if you want to target it to a specific part of the body,” says Paula Hammond, the David H. Koch Professor in Engineering at MIT. Hammond and her colleagues have now come up with a novel delivery vehicle in which RNA is packed into microspheres so dense that they withstand degradation until they reach their destinations. The new system, described Feb. 26 in the journal Nature Materials, knocks down expression of specific genes as effectively as existing delivery methods, but with a much smaller dose of particles. Such particles could offer a new way to treat not only cancer, but also any other chronic disease caused by a “misbehaving gene,” says Hammond, who is also a member of MIT’s David H. Koch Institute for Integrative Cancer Research. “RNA interference holds a huge amount of promise for a number of disorders, one of which is cancer, but also neurological disorders and immune disorders,” she says. Lead author of the paper is Jong Bum Lee, a former postdoc in Hammond’s lab. Postdoc Jinkee Hong, Daniel Bonner PhD ’12 and Zhiyong Poon PhD ’11 are also authors of the paper. Genetic disruption RNA interference is a naturally occurring process, discovered in 1998, that allows cells to fine-tune their genetic expression. Genetic information is normally carried from DNA in the nucleus to ribosomes, cellular structures where proteins are made. siRNA binds to the messenger RNA that carries this genetic information, destroying instructions before they reach the ribosome. Paula Hammond, the David H. Koch Professor in Engineering, right, with postdoc Jinkee Hong. Photo: Allegra Boverman Scientists are working on many ways to artificially replicate this process to target specific genes, including packaging siRNA into nanoparticles made of lipids or inorganic materials such as gold. Though many of those have shown some success, one drawback is that it’s difficult to load large amounts of siRNA onto those carriers, because the short strands do not pack tightly. To overcome this, Hammond’s team decided to package the RNA as one long strand that would fold into a tiny, compact sphere. The researchers used an RNA synthesis method known as rolling circle transcription to produce extremely long strands of RNA made up of a repeating sequence of 21 nucleotides. Those segments are separated by a shorter stretch that is recognized by the enzyme Dicer, which chops RNA wherever it encounters that sequence. As the RNA strand is synthesized, it folds into sheets that then self-assemble into a very dense, sponge-like sphere. Up to half a million copies of the same RNA sequence can be packed into a sphere with a diameter of just two microns. Once the spheres form, the researchers wrap them in a layer of positively charged polymer, which induces the spheres to pack even more tightly (down to a 200-nanometer diameter) and also helps them to enter cells. After the spheres enter a cell, the Dicer enzyme chops the RNA at specific locations, releasing the 21-nucleotide siRNA sequences. Peixuan Guo, director of the NIH Nanomedicine Development Center at the University of Kentucky, says the most exciting aspect of the work is the development of a new self-assembly method for RNA particles. Guo, who was not part of the research team, adds that the particles might be more effective at entering cells if they were shrunk to an even smaller size, closer to 50 nanometers. Targeting tumors In the Nature Materials paper, the researchers tested their spheres by programming them to deliver RNA sequences that shut off a gene that causes tumor cells to glow in mice. They found that they could achieve the same level of gene knockdown as conventional nanoparticle delivery, but with about one-thousandth as many particles. The microsponges accumulate at tumor sites through a phenomenon often used to deliver nanoparticles: The blood vessels surrounding tumors are “leaky,” meaning that they have tiny pores through which very small particles can squeeze. In future studies, the researchers plan to design microspheres coated with polymers that specifically target tumor cells or other diseased cells. They are also working on spheres that carry DNA, for potential use in gene therapy.
Saving data in vortex structures by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
(Technische Universitaet Muenchen) A new phenomenon might make computing devices faster, smaller and much more energy-efficient. Moving so-called skyrmions needs 100,000 times smaller currents than existing technologies and the number of atoms needed for a data bit could be reduced significantly. Now a team of physicists from the Technische Universitaet Muenchen and the University of Cologne developed a simple electronic method for moving and reading these skyrmion data bits. The journal Nature Physics reports on their results.
NSF CAREER grants support ocean energy, microforming, computer planning by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
(University of New Hampshire) Three University of New Hampshire faculty members will explore energy from the ocean, manufacturing on a tiny scale, and speedier computer planning, thanks to prestigious Faculty Early Career Development (CAREER) Awards from the National Science Foundation. The grants, totaling nearly $1.3 million over five years, went to assistant professors Yannis Korkolis and Martin Wosnik of the mechanical engineering department and Wheeler Ruml of the computer science department.
Pitt researchers coax gold into nanowires by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
(University of Pittsburgh) Researchers at the University of Pittsburgh have coaxed gold into nanowires as a way of creating an inexpensive material for detecting poisonous gases found in natural gas.
MIT research: A new twist on nanowires by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) Nanowires -- microscopic fibers that can be "grown" in the lab -- are a hot research topic today, with a variety of potential applications including light-emitting diodes and sensors. Now, a team of MIT researchers has found a way of precisely controlling the width and composition of these tiny strands as they grow, making it possible to grow complex structures that are optimally designed for particular applications.
Plastic nanoparticles affect behavior and fat metabolism in fish by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
(Public Library of Science) Nanoparticles have many useful applications, but also raise some potential health and ecological concerns. Now, new research shows that plastic nanoparticles are transported through the aquatic food chain and affect fish metabolism and behavior.
Wake Forest's CNT-Based 'Power Felt' Turns Body Heat into Electricity by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 12:39
Researchers at Wake Forest University’s Center for Nanotechnology and Molecular Materials have developed a CNT-based technology called Power Felt, which can convert body heat into an electrical current. Using carbon nanotubes locked up in flexible plastic fibers, the device actually feels like fabric. It uses temperature differences, such as room temperature versus body temperature, to create the electrical charge, said CNMM’s director David Carroll. <br><br> "Generally thermoelectrics are an underdeveloped technology for harvesting energy, yet there is so much opportunity," said team member Corey Hewitt. Applications include the ability to recapture a car's waste energy to improve fuel mileage or to power the radio, air conditioning or navigation system. Power Felt could also be used in emergencies to generate a charge for flashlights and cellphones, in homes to insulate pipes or lower gas or electric bills. <br><br> The research appears in the journal Nano Letters. .
Controlling protein function with nanotechnology by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
(Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute) A new study is providing important details on how proteins in our bodies interact with nanomaterials. In their new study, published in the Feb. 2 online edition of the journal Nano Letters, the researchers developed a new tool to determine the orientation of proteins on different nanostructures. The discovery is a key step in the effort to control the orientation, structure, and function of proteins in the body using nanomaterials.
Design eye for the science guy: Drop-in clinic helps scientists communicate data by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
(University of Washington) The Design Help Desk offers scientists a chance to meet with a student who can help them create more effective figures, tables and graphs. This visual equivalent of a writing help desk is also a study on how to teach data visualization.
Making droplets drop faster by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) New research by a team at MIT offers important new insights into how water droplets form, and ways to pattern the collecting surfaces at the nanoscale to encourage droplets to form more rapidly. These insights could enable a new generation of significantly more efficient power plants and desalination plants, the researchers say.
Discovery opens door to low-cost 'negative refraction,' new products and industries by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
(Oregon State University) Researchers have discovered a way to make a low-cost material that might accomplish negative refraction of light and other radiation. An inexpensive way to accomplish this could have extraordinary possibilities, ranging from a "super lens" to energy harvesting, machine vision or "stealth" coatings for seeming invisibility.
UC Santa Barbara researcher's new study may lead to MRIs on a nanoscale by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
(University of California - Santa Barbara) Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) on the nanoscale and the ever-elusive quantum computer are among the advancements edging closer toward the realm of possibility, and a new study co-authored by a UC Santa Barbara researcher may give both an extra nudge. The findings appear today in Science Express, an online version of the journal Science.
Penn researchers build first physical 'metatronic' circuit by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
(University of Pennsylvania) The technological world of the 21st century owes a tremendous amount to advances in electrical engineering, specifically, the ability to finely control the flow of electrical charges using increasingly small and complicated circuits. And while those electrical advances continue to race ahead, researchers at the University of Pennsylvania are pushing circuitry forward in a different way, by replacing electricity with light.
A rainbow for the palm of your hand by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
(University at Buffalo) University at Buffalo engineers have developed a one-step, low-cost method to fabricate a polymer that is rainbow-colored, reflecting many different wavelengths of light when viewed from a single perspective. The colors won't fade with time because they are produced by surface geometry, and not pigment -- the same principle that gives color to the wings of butterflies and feather of peacocks.
Metal nanoparticles shine with customizable color by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
(Harvard University) Engineers at Harvard have demonstrated a new kind of tunable color filter that uses optical nanoantennas to obtain precise control of color output. Whereas a conventional color filter can only produce one fixed color, a single active filter under exposure to different types of light can produce a range of colors. The advance has the potential for application in televisions and biological imaging, and could even be used to create invisible security tags to mark currency.
Finland Centers Taps Novel Method to Make Nanomaterials by PloneRSS — last modified October 28, 2012 - 10:29
Researchers at the NanoScience Center of the University of Jyvaskyla, Finland, and at Harvard University, US, have discovered a novel way to make nanomaterials. Using computer simulations, the researchers have been able to predict that long and narrow graphene nanoribbons can be rolled into carbon nanotubes by means of twisting. The research has received funding from the Academy of Finland.
Team Takes Light-Emitting Nanocrystal Diodes Ultraviolet by PloneRSS — last modified May 29, 2012 - 10:51
Embedding nanocrystals in glass provides a way to create UV-producing LEDs for biomedical applications, according to a team of nanoresearchers from the U.S. and Italy. The scientists have developed a process for creating glass-based, inorganic light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that produce light in the ultraviolet range. <p><p> The work is a step toward biomedical devices with active components made from nanostructured systems. A joint paper describing the work appears in the online Nature Communications
Emerge attracts futurists to collaborate with scientists, designers artists is redesign of future by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
(Arizona State University) Singular questions about what it means to be human in the face of emerging technologies will be explored March 1-3 when Arizona State University hosts Emerge.An unparalleled campus-wide collaboration, Emerge unites artists, engineers, bio scientists, social scientists, story tellers and designers to build, draw, write and rethink the future of the human species and the environments that we share.
MIT research: Delivering RNA with tiny sponge-like spheres by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
(Massachusetts Institute of Technology) A new RNA interference method holds promise for treating cancer and other diseases.
Biotech firm spun off from Children's Hospital raises $7 million to advance vascular treatment by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
(Children's Hospital of Philadelphia) Vascular Magnetics, the first start-up company spun off by the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, has raised $7 million to advance development of an innovative drug delivery system using magnetically targeted nanoparticles to treat peripheral artery disease.
New measuring techniques can improve efficiency, safety of nanoparticles by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
(University of Oregon) Using high-precision microscopy and X-ray scattering techniques, University of Oregon researchers have gained eye-opening insights into the process of applying green chemistry to nanotechnology that results in high yields, improves efficiency and dramatically reduces waste and potential negative exposure to human health or the environment.
New laser can point the way to new energy harvesting by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
(Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council) New ultra-fast laser equipment, capable of generating intense pulses of light as short as a few femtoseconds from the UV to the infrared, will help scientists at the University of East Anglia measure how energy is transferred from molecule to molecule and point the way to molecular structures for exploiting solar radiation.
Nanofiber breakthrough holds promise for medicine and microprocessors by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
(Polytechnic Institute of New York University) A new method for creating nanofibers made of proteins promises to greatly improve drug delivery methods, aid in regenerating human tissue, and pave the way to an organic method of building nanofibers for tiny, powerful microprocessors. Researchers at Polytechnic Institute of NYU discovered how to make nanofibers using the COMP protein found in human cartilage. By adding different metal ions, researchers found the fibers would absorb or release drug molecules.
Solved: The mystery of the nanoscale crop circles by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
(DOE/Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory) A useful alloy of gold and silicon, called a eutectic, melts at a far lower temperature than either of its components. Until now, however, its odd behavior on the nanoscale has confounded researchers. By analyzing peculiar "nanoscale crop circles" formed from ultra-thin layers of gold on silicon, scientists at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have discovered the eutectic alloy's unique properties, including its special promise for engineering and processing nanoscale materials.
Protecting living fossil trees by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
(Queensland University of Technology) Scientists are working to protect living fossil trees in Fiji from the impact of climate change with cutting-edge DNA sequencing technology.
UT Engineering faculty receive almost $1.4 million in NSF CAREER awards by PloneRSS — last modified March 04, 2012 - 10:02
(University of Texas at Austin) Four faculty members from the Cockrell School of Engineering at the University of Texas at Austin have been selected to receive Faculty Early Career Development awards totaling nearly $1.4 million from the National Science Foundation.
Novel Nanostructured Glass for Memory, Imaging, Recording by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:10
University of Southampton researchers have developed new nano-structured glass, turning it into new type of computer memory. The work, led by Professor Peter Kazansky at the University's Optoelectronics Research Centre, will significantly reduce the cost of medical imaging, according to the team.<p><p> The team used nano-structures to develop new monolithic glass space-variant polarization converters. The millimeter-sized devices change the way light travels through glass, and generate 'whirlpools' of light that can then be read in much the same way as data in optical fibers, according to the team. <p><p> The result: Information can be written, wiped and rewritten into the molecular structure of the glass using a laser. At high-enough intensities, ultra-short laser pulses can be used to imprint tiny dots (like 3D pixels) called 'voxels' in glass. This, in turn, means more precise laser material processing, optical manipulation of atom-sized objects, ultra-high resolution imaging and potentially, table-top particle accelerators, according to researchers. <p><p> The work is published in Applied Physics Letters.
Rice University Powers Solid-State Energy Storage with Nano by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:11
Rice University researchers have created a solid-state, nanotube-based supercapacitor that promises to combine the best qualities of high-energy batteries and fast-charging capacitors in a device suitable for extreme environments. <p><p> The research takes EDLCs (electric double-layer capacitors) or supercapacitors to a new nanoscale level. EDLCs, which can hold hundreds of times more energy than a standard capacitor, rely on liquid or gel-like electrolytes. These can break down in very hot or cold conditions. <p><p> The Rice supercapacitor overcomes this limitation, by using a solid, nanoscale coat of oxide dielectric material, which entirely replaces electrolytes. The result is what researchers called “robust, versatile energy storage” that can be deeply integrated into the manufacture of devices. Potential uses span on-chip nanocircuitry to entire power plants. <p><p> The work is published in the journal Carbon.
Spire Awarded US Patent for Nano-Photovoltics by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:09
Spire Corp. reports it has received a patent titled ‘Nanophotovoltaic Devices’ from the United States Patent and Trademark Office. Spire’s discovery includes Nano-PV devices with sizes ranging between 50 nm and 5 µm and a technique for their production. The devices are designed to target particular biological cells and are then triggered selectively by light to produce an electrical charge to destroy the cells or hinder their growth.
Harvard-Led Team Use Single-Molecule Imaging to Study Cell Receptors by PloneRSS — last modified August 22, 2013 - 11:07
A research team led by Harvard Medical School professor of cell biology, Gaudenz Danuser has found that a cell’s structural elements control the movement of cell surface receptors, proteins that allow cells to get signals from different parts of the living organism. <p><p> This finding will impact drug production as well as treatments of tumors and other diseases, according to team members. Other team members are from University of Alberta, Edmonton, and Toronto's Hospital for Sick Children. The study focused on action of human macrophages receptor called as CD36.
SUNY, Lehigh Use Nanoplasmonics To Speed Communications by PloneRSS — last modified April 22, 2011 - 10:34
A team from State University of New York (SUNY) at Buffalo and Lehigh University are using nanoplasmonic structures to slow broadband light waves. Qiaoqiang Gan PhD, an assistant professor at Buffalo's School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, said the goal is to enhance multiplexed, multiwavelength communications for better data processing and throughput. <br><br>"At the moment, processing data with optical signals is limited by how quickly the signal can be interpreted," he says. "If the signal can be slowed, more information could be processed without overloading the system." The team published their work in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
Ohio Researchers Advance Toward Hybrid Spintronic Computer Chips by PloneRSS — last modified April 22, 2011 - 10:38
Ohio State University researchers report they have created the first electronic circuit to merge traditional inorganic semiconductors with organic "spintronics" -- devices that utilize the spin of electrons to read, write and manipulate data. Spintronic logic would theoretically require much less power, and produce much less heat, than current electronics, while enabling computers to turn on instantly without booting up, according to Ezekiel Johnston-Halperin, assistant professor of physics, and his team. The work combined an inorganic semiconductor with a unique plastic material that is under development by fellow Ohio researcher Arthur J. Epstein.
UCLA Team Engineers Biomolecules for Predictable Nanocatalysts by PloneRSS — last modified April 23, 2011 - 10:18
A team at UCLA’s Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science is working at the nanoscale to explore a new class of more efficient catalysts that could be used to break down pollution, create hydrogen fuel cells, store hydrogen and synthesize fine chemicals. <br><br>The team, looking for a method for producing nanocatalysts in a controlled and predictable way, has demonstrated a new approach to produce nanocrystals with predictable shapes. The work uses surfactants, biomolecules of specific peptide sequences that can bind selectively to certain facets of the crystals' exposed surfaces.
One Scientist Asks: How Small Can Nanomanufacturing Go? by PloneRSS — last modified April 22, 2011 - 11:08
Prof. Mike Kelly of the University of Cambridge's Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, is questioning how small nanomanufacturing can go. He suggests it’s impossible to reliable mass produce nanostructures of three nanometres or less using external tools (or a “top-down” approach). <br><br>Kelly researched a statistical evaluation of mass-produced vertical nanopillars, used in sensors and displays, and found variations high enough that the nanocomponents would not function optimally. The alternative “bottom-up” approach, which uses molecules to construct whole materials, also has problems and can be too unpredictable for defect–free mass production. <br><br> Kelly’s work appears the journal Nanotechnology (April 21 issue).
Nanoforum Comes to Rome, Italy; September 14, 2011 by PloneRSS — last modified April 23, 2011 - 10:06
A two-day conference and an exhibition area make nanoforum an important meeting for Italian and foreign companies and research centres, focusing on the main industrial sectors (such as energy, functional materials, nanomedicine, MEMS & NEMS, environment, intellectual property and much more). <br><br>
Indian Defence Research Agency Plans $110 million Nano Foundry by PloneRSS — last modified December 11, 2010 - 10:44
India's state-run Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) plans to set up a nano foundry with Rs.500 crore (about USD 110 million) investment to roll out products for various applications. The foundry will be set up in partnership with the Indian Institutes of Technology. <p><p>Areas of focus will include healthcare, medicine, sensors and energy harvesting
Rensselaer's Georges Belfort Wins ACS Biochemical Engineering Award by PloneRSS — last modified December 11, 2010 - 11:11
Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute professor Georges Belfort has been awarded the 2011 Alan S. Michaels Award in the Recovery of Biological Products from the American Chemical Society Biotechnology Division. Dr. Belfort was recognized for his fundamental and applied research of separations processes in biochemical engineering. He is Russell Sage Professor of Chemical and Biological Engineering at Rensselaer. <p><p>We applaud and congratulate Dr. Belfort for this well-earned and richly deserved honor from the ACS,” said David Rosowsky, dean of the School of Engineering at Rensselaer. “In addition to his renown as a global authority on bioseparations and the behavior of biological molecules at solid interfaces, Georges’ inherent kindness and vigilant pursuit of excellence leave a lasting impression on his peers, colleagues, students, and everyone with whom he interacts. This award recognizes and celebrates the impact of Professor Belfort’s stellar career.”
UCLA To Explore Nano-Magnetics, Spintronics for Non-Volatile Logic by PloneRSS — last modified December 11, 2010 - 10:51
The Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency has awarded an $8.4 million grant to the UCLA Henry Samueli School of Engineering and Applied Science for research in non-volatile logic -- a technology that enables computers and electronic devices to keep their state, even while powered off, then start up and run complex programs instantaneously once powered back on. The research has broad implications across a range of technologies, including portable electronics, remote sensors, unmanned aerial vehicles and high-performance computing. <p><p>The research program will explore three technical areas: the behavior of nanoscale magnetic materials; the fabrication and testing of a non-volatile logic circuit; and the development of novel circuits and circuit-design tools. Spintronics will also be a focus area, researchers said.
Asian Researchers Lead the World in Nanofiltration Techniques, Patents by PloneRSS — last modified December 11, 2010 - 11:06
Water scarcity is driving a wave of innovation in water filtration technology from Asian nations, according to a report issued today by Chemical Abstracts Service (CAS). The CAS report finds Asian researchers have issued 60 percent of all nanofiltration patents over the last 20 years, with China leading the way. According to the Asian Development Bank, Asian nations will face a 40 percent deficit between water supply and demand by 2030.
International Symposium on Olfaction and Electronic Nose: May 2-5, 2011; New York by PloneRSS — last modified December 11, 2010 - 10:58
This symposium by Engineering Conferences International will investigate nanoscale technologies that are leading to the development of electronic nose and tongue systems -- instruments that can mimic biological olfaction processes. The intelligent devices function as chemical sensor arrays for odor classification and/or gas discrimination.
University, Industry Team Prototype "Transparant" Thin Film Solar Technology by PloneRSS — last modified November 26, 2010 - 12:39
An international team is collaborating on novel “transparent” thin film solar cell technology. The team is comprised of experts from University of Leicester and EnSol AS, a Norwegian firm with thin film patents. The group will work to synthesize small amounts of the transparent thin film material for prototyping, including as a tint for windows and covering for building materials.
Ohio State Explores Spintronics to Find Substitute for Microelectronics by PloneRSS — last modified November 26, 2010 - 12:45
Researchers at Ohio State University have demonstrated the first plastic computer memory device that utilizes the spin of electrons to read and write data. An alternative to traditional microelectronics, so-called "spintronics" could store more data in less space, process data faster, and consume less power. <br><br>Dr. Arthur J. Epstein, Distinguished University Professor of physics and chemistry and director of the Institute for Magnetic and Electronic Polymers at Ohio State, described the material as a hybrid of a semiconductor that is made from organic materials and a special magnetic polymer semiconductor. As such, it is a bridge between today's computers and the all-polymer, spintronic computers that he and his partners hope to enable in the future.
NSF Funds Project Aimed at Nanofiber-Based Bone Regeneration by PloneRSS — last modified August 10, 2010 - 14:19
Biomimetics researchers at Stevens Institute of Technology have developed a nanoscale approach for reconstructing intricate bone tissue with the potential to form hierarchical cortical bone. A team led by Dr. Hongjun Wang, a professor in SIT’s Department of Chemistry, Chemical Biology and Biomedical Engineering, is engineering cortical bone by synthesizing smaller units and fusing them together. The approach uses nanofibers to build “scaffolds” that produce a biomimetic cell-friendly microenvironment to facilitate the bone tissue formation. Project is funded by National Science Foundation (NSF).
NanoMed 2010 – Conference on Biomedical Applications of Nanotechnology: Dec. 2-3, 2010 by PloneRSS — last modified August 10, 2010 - 14:11
NanoMed 2010 – 7th International Conference on Biomedical Applications of Nanotechnology will be held On December 2 – 3, 2010, in Berlin, Germany. Focus Topic is Nanotechnology-Enabled Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer. Other nanomedicine-related topics will include: • drug delivery, targeting and controlled release • innovative dental materials • nanobioanalytics and diagnostic techniques • nanomaterials for implants and regenerative medicine • microbicidal coatings for sterility, general hygiene and drug packaging • novel contrast agents • miniaturization of biochips, • bio-labeling with quantum dots • potential risks of nanomaterials in medical applications, and • commercialization, intellectual property and regulatory issues
Canadian Scientists Advance Development of Quantum Dot Solar Cells by PloneRSS — last modified August 04, 2010 - 15:54
Scientists at the University of Toronto in Canada have shown that inexpensive nickel can work just as well as gold for one of the critical electrical contacts that gather the electrical current produced by their colloidal quantum dot solar cells. As a result, researchers predict one of the most promising technologies for making inexpensive but reasonably efficient solar photovoltaic cells will get much cheaper.
Olympus Announces Next Leap Forward in Multicolor TIRF Imaging by PloneRSS — last modified December 06, 2009 - 14:03
Olympus, has announced another significant leap forward in multicolor TIRF (total internal reflection fluorescence) microscopy imaging. The Olympus cell TIRF illuminator offers four motorized channels for simultaneous image capture; intuitive, user-friendly software control of TIRF parameters; and instant setting and confirmation of the precise TIRF angle.
Call for Proposals 'Energy Efficiency with Nanotechnology' by PloneRSS — last modified December 06, 2009 - 13:18
The Top-level Research Initiative in Scandinavia is launching a call for user-driven research projects within the sub-programme 'Energy Efficiency with Nanotechnology' in beginning of 2010. The expected deadline for pre-proposals is 1st of March 2010. For further information, please visit the Top-level Research Initiative webpage. Scope of the program is "Improvement of the efficiency of future sustainable energy system by applying nanotechnology to the transport sector, energy conversion and use".
Nanocyl Expands Global Production Capacity of Carbon Nanotubes by PloneRSS