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Chapter 1 Lithography

by siebo last modified March 31, 2008 - 02:40

MEMS technology and applications have grown at a tremendous pace, while structural dimensions have grown smaller and smaller, reaching down even to the molecular level. With this movement have come new types of applications and rapid advances in the technologies and techniques needed to fabricate the increasingly miniature devices that are literally changing our world. A bestseller in its first edition, Fundamentals of Microfabrication, Second Edition reflects the many developments in methods, materials, and applications that have emerged recently. Renowned author Marc Madou has added exercise sets to each chapter, thus answering the need for a textbook in this field. Fundamentals of Microfabrication, Second Edition offers unique, in-depth coverage of the science of miniaturization, its methods, and materials. From the fundamentals of lithography through bonding and packaging to quantum structures and molecular engineering, it provides the background, tools, and directions you need to confidently choose fabrication methods and materials for a particular miniaturization problem. New in the Second Edition - Revised chapters that reflect the many recent advances in the field - Updated and enhanced discussions of topics including DNA arrays, microfluidics, micromolding techniques, and nanotechnology - In-depth coverage of bio-MEMs, RF-MEMs, high-temperature, and optical MEMs. - Many more links to the Web - Problem sets in each chapter

Chapter 1: Lithography

Historical Note: Lithography’s Origins
Photolithography Overview
  Spinning Resist and Soft Baking
  Exposure and Postexposure Treatment
  De-Scumming and Postbaking
    Resist Tone
      Positive Resists
      Negative Resists
    Permanent Resists
    Glass Transition Temperature of a Resist (Tg)
  Wafer Priming
  Wafer Cleaning and Contaminants: The Clean Room
  Resist Stripping
    Wet Stripping
    Dry Stripping

Critical Dimension, Overall Resolution, Line-Width

Lithographic Sensitivity and Intrinsic Resist Sensitivity (Photochemical Quantum Efficiency)
  Lithographic Sensitivity
  Intrinsic Sensitivity of a Resist (Photochemical Quantum Efficiency)

Resist Profiles
  Overview of Profile Types
  Lift-Off Profile

Contrast and Experimental Determination of Lithographic Sensitivity

Resolution in Photolithography
  Resolution in Contact and Proximity Printing (Shadow Printing)
    Contact Printing
    Proximity Printing
    Resolution with Self-Aligned Masks
  Projection Printing
    Types of Projection Methods
    Modulation Transfer Function
    Critical MTF Values
    Mathematical Expressions Governing Resolution in Projection Printing
    Depth of Focus
    Mask Alignment in Projection Printing
      Fiducial Marks
      Alignment in Miniaturized Devices
    Mathematical Expression for Resist Profiles
    Planarization Strategies

Photolithography Resolution Enhancement Technology
  Strategies for Improved Resolution through Improved Resist Performance
    Chemically Amplified Resists
      tBOC Based Resists
      SU-8 Resist
    Image Reversal
      Rohm and Haas Resist
    Antireflective Coatings –Thin Film Interference Effects
    Thin Film Imaging
      Thin Film Imaging in Single Layer Resist—Top Surface Imaging
      Multilayer Resist Thin Film Imaging
  Strategies for Improved Resolution through Improved Mask Technology
    Phase-Shifting Masks
    Grey-Tone Masks and Tapered Structures

Beyond Moore’s Law
  Moore’s Law

Next Generation Lithographies
  Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography
  X-Ray Lithography
    Major Features of X-Ray Lithography
    X-Ray Resists
    X-Ray Masks
    Why Use a Synchrotron to Generate X-Rays?
  Charged-Particle-Beam Lithography
    Electron-Beam Lithography
      Electron-Beam Resists
      Electron Emission Sources
      Micromachined Electron Emission Sources
      Scattering with Angular Limitation Projection Electron Beam Lithography (SCALPEL)
    Ion-Beam Lithography
      Focused Ion Beam and Deep Ion Beam Lithography
      Ion Projection Lithography
      Comparison of Ion Beam Lithography with E-Beam Lithography

Emerging Lithography Technologies
  Scanning Probe Lithography
    STM/AFM Background
    Scanning Probe Lithography
      Modes of Pattern Generation in Scanning Probe Lithography
      Atom Lithography or Mechanosynthesis
  Very Thin Resist Layers
    Langmuir-Blodgett Resists
    Self-Assembled Monolayers
    Ultrathin Film Resist Layers
  Soft Lithography
    Micro Contact Printing
    Micro-Transfer Molding
    Micromolding in Capillaries
    Micro-Replica Molding
    Soft Lithography Summary
  3D Lithography Methods
    Holographic Lithography
    Stereolithography/Micro-Photoforming Process
    Lithography on Nonplanar Substrates

  1.1 Protein Patterning
  1.2 Inclined LIGA Walls
  1.3 PDMS Based CDs