Mineral Nanoparticles: Electrokinetics
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The term “electrokinetics” means the combined effects of motion and electrical phenomena. However, the term “electrokinetic properties” carry a wider connotation including zeta potential (zp), the structure of electrical double layer (EDL), surface potential, and isoelectric point (iep) phenomena. The electrokinetic properties of a substance, inorganic or organic, are used to explain the mechanism of dispersion and agglomeration in a liquid phase and to identify the adsorption mechanisms of ions or molecules at a solid–liquid interface. Therefore they play an important role in a spectrum of applications including ceramics, food, mining, paper, medicine, water and wastewater treatment, emulsions, biochemistry, and detergents. In this paper, the type and significance of electrokinetic properties of mineral nanoparticles, the mechanism of particle–particle interactions in liquid systems, and the applications of electrokinetic phenomena are presented.