X-Ray Absorption Studies of Catalyst Nanostructures
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In recent years, X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy has become a routine method for determining the coordination environment and local structure of metallic nanoparticles. Because of the penetrating power of high-energy X-rays, XAFS data may be obtained under realistic operating conditions. In this review, we provide a short overview of XAFS spectroscopy and some features that make it attractive for characterization of nanoparticles. We also give several examples of how XAFS has been applied to problems in catalysis. Special emphasis will be given to highlighting XAFS data taken on supported catalytic nanoparticles under realistic preparation, pretreatment, reaction, and deactivation conditions.