Titanium Dioxide Coatings on Stainless Steel
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Titanium dioxide (TiO2) is a photosensitive semiconductor and its valence electrons are excited into the conduction band by high-energy radiation in the ultraviolet (UV) range (200–400 nm). TiO2 has been used for diverse applications in various configurations as pellets, beads, powders, and immobilized films. The most frequently cited applications for TiO2 in a film configuration are as self-cleaning materials, agents for heterogeneous photocatalysis, solar cells, gas sensors, and corrosion-control coatings.
Pure TiO2 pellets or beads tend to be brittle and susceptible to attrition or fragmentation under mild stress and shear forces. TiO2 powders are active because they have a high specific surface area, but removing the powder catalyst from the reaction bulk media can be troublesome.
Thus TiO2 film coatings have attracted considerable interest in the last decade. Film coatings make available the catalytic properties of TiO2 while benefiting from the mechanical properties of the substrate. TiO2 films are fabricated onto supporting materials (substrates) by a variety of different methods including the sol–gel method, sputtering technique, electrochemical process, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), and spray pyrolysis.