Biosensor Applications: Surface Engineering
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There has been a recent trend toward device miniaturization and functionalization for simultaneous analysis of multiple samples in the field of biotechnology. This trend can offer various advantages to the researchers because the devices are able to provide tools to handle ultrasmall sample volume and improve detection limit of nanobiosensors and -biochips by increasing the density of receptor elements. It is also possible to control the reactivity of the receptors by engineering them with molecular precision. In this article, we will briefly characterize methods for biomolecular recognition on the surface and surface-modification methods, such as Langmuir–Blodgett (LB), layer-by-layer (LbL), and self-assembly monolayer (SAM) approaches. The most important step for successful surface engineering for biomolecules, which demands proper orientation, is also reviewed in detail. The main goal of this article is to show the trends in local surface patterning and subsequent receptor design on the solid surface for biosensor applications.