Self-Assembly and Multiple Phases of Layered Double Hydroxides
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As an important class of clay-like materials, layered double hydroxides (LDHs) possess the promising ability to combine organic anions and metal hydroxide layers, and form variable nanometer-scale precursors that could be readily developed into porous multimetal mixed oxide catalysts or supports. Organic–inorganic hybrid assemblies have recently received much attention because of their abundant variations in the structures and molecular interactions. In this review, we briefly discuss some basic issues in LDH structural chemistry, such as the underlying sandwich structure, the natures of layer cations and interlayer anions, polytypes, superlattice, crystallite growth, and morphological features. Then we focus on LDH–surfactant hybrids, including formation of various LDH phases and the corresponding anion packing, chemical convertibility between the phases and their stability, flexible morphological features and growth habits, new perspective applications with particular emphasis on our recent work.