Hydrogel Nanoparticles Made of Cross-Linked Polyvinylpyrrolidone
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Carrier-mediated drug delivery has witnessed a sea change in the last two decades, wherein the focus on particulate carriers has shifted from lipid-based vesicles to polymeric nanoparticles. The inadequacy of the liposomal system has led researchers to focus on carriers with properties more conducive to drug loading, in vivo controlled drug release, and storage stability. The polymeric nanoparticles have evolved as an outcome of these requirements, and innumerable reports on studies in this area can be encountered in the scientific literature. Synthetic biomaterials that are highly biocompatible and nonimmunogenic have paved the way for the development and synthesis of nanoparticles from homo/copolymeric blends that can be suitably monitored according to the type of drug that requires to be delivered. In light of this interest, poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP), the water-soluble homopolymer of N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone (NVP), which has long been used as a blood-plasma substitute and extender, became of interest for its application in nanoparticles. Such a highly biocompatible and biologically acceptable polymer could form ideal carriers for hydrophilic drugs. The hydrogel properties of the polymer could also provide hydrophilic surface properties that would help the nanoparticles in evading the reticuloendothelial system (RES) of the body. This article highlights various studies incorporating the preparation of PVP nanoparticles in reverse micelles and its applications.