Molecular Assembly Nanowires
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Fabrication of one-dimensional (1-D) fundamental nanoscale structures from molecular systems through bottom–up approach should be one of the most important steps to realize nanoscale electronic devices. Because 1-D systems are the structures with the lowest dimension that permit efficient electron transport, the nanowires are expected to be critical to functionalize and integrate the nanoscale electronic devices. Nanowires are important units in constructing electronic circuits, particularly in electrical conducting; thus a variety of nanowires have been the focus of extensive studies aimed toward nanoscale electronic systems. At present, a wide range of compounds from inorganic metals, semiconductors, and carbon nanotubes have been employed as nanowires.
Although only a few examples are reported for the preparation of nanowires of molecular assemblies, we consider that these molecular nanowires should have an important role in the complete bottom–up manufacture of the molecular electronics. Such nanowires can be assembled from π-molecules through molecule-by-molecule π-stacking. The researches in the field of “molecular conductors” will offer a guiding principle in constructing electrical conducting molecular nanowires. The anisotropic charge–transfer (CT) interaction in molecular conductors is advantageous to form the 1-D π − π stacking nanowire structure. In addition, “supramolecular chemistry” will offer powerful tools to fabricate molecular nanowires through the self-assembly process. Appropriate design of molecule to orient and integrate the molecular-assembly nanowires on the substrate surface should be effective to realize molecular-assembly electronic devices. Furthermore, the techniques of “Langmuir–Blodgett (LB) Films” are very useful methods to fabricate nanoscale molecular-assembly structures on a variety of substrate surfaces. To realize molecular-assembly nanoscale devices through bottom–up chemical approach, three types of scientific concepts—molecular conductor, supramolecular chemistry, and surface science—should be linked together.