Langmuir-Blodgett Films: Fabrication, Characterization, and Nanomechanical Measurements
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Langmuir films are (most often) mechanically assembled 2-D arrays of molecules upon the surface of a liquid. Once the molecules are compressed to the desired organization, the monolayer film can be transferred on to a solid support. Film characteristics, such as thickness and molecular arrangement can be controlled at the molecular level with the LB deposition method. There are numerous excellent review articles as well as books that provide comprehensive information about the field of LB monolayers and multilayers.
Langmuir and LB films are generally composed of amphiphilic molecules containing both hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties, as in the fatty acids. A monolayer of insoluble amphiphiles at the air/liquid interface is referred to as a Langmuir monolayer. Films of Langmuir monolayers transferred onto a solid substrate are known as Langmuir–Blodgett films; they can be single or multiple layers.