Researchers at the University of Bologna in Unibo, Italy have discovered the simplest way to enable a carbon nanotube to enter a cell membrane is at a flat angle against the surface of the membrane. A flat entry provides a good energy balance, and that nanotubes could assume this position by itself when positioned adjacent to the membrane.
The physical properties of nanotubes, including thermal and electrical conductivity, make them suitable for transmitting data within the cell. These nanotubes can also be utilized to evaluate certain materials and to test specific techniques beyond cell membranes. Scientists also found small CNT bundles attached to each other render low cell damage.